Effectiveness of Time-Perspective Training on Time-Balancing and Self-Regulation among Female Students

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: The present study has aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the time-perspective training on time-balancing and self-regulation among grade 9 female students living in Tehran.
Method: This research was a semi-experimental research with a pretest-posttest and follow-up design and a control group. The statistical population consisted of all grade 9 female students without Balanced Time-Perspective (BTP). The samples were chosen randomly from high-school students and were then divided into control and experimental groups. The members of the experimental group experienced the time-perspective training sessions and then the results were compared to those of controls. Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) and Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-A) were used for gathering data. Also, data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics of variance for repeated measures ANOVA and post hoc Bonfroni test was used at α= 0.05 through SPSS Ver.22 software .
Results: Findings revealed that time perspective training had an effect on the time balancing and academic self-regulation of students and there was a significant difference between the two groups (p <0.0001) while such an effect remained in the two-month follow-up phase (P<0.0001).
Conclusion: The therapists are recommended to use time-perspective training among the students in order to provide their future with better psychological health.

Keywords


References

1.   Zimbardo P, Boyd, J. . The time paradox: The new psychology of time that will change your life. New York: Free Press; 2008.

2.   Vieira AR, Modesto, A., Marazita, M.L.,. Caries: Review of Human Genetics Research. Caries research. 2014;48(5):491-506.

3.   Harford W. Connectedness and perceived instrumentality in pre-service teachers: A comparison of two measures. New Mexico: The University of New Mexico; 2011.

4.   Fernandez-Rio J, Cecchini, J.A., Méndez-Gimenez, A., Mendez-Alonso, D., Prieto, J.A.,. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure. Frontiers in Psychology. 2017;8:11.

5.   Raheb G. Designing and testing a learning motivation improvement model based on social constructivism theory. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2009;3(1):79-38.

6.   Shafiee-Tabar M, Akbari-Chermahini, S. The Role of Mindfulness and Emotional Regulation in Predicting Depression and Anxiety in University Students. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences,. 2017;11(3):101-6.

7.   Clark NM, Zimmerman, B.J. A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Learning About Health. Health Education & Behavior. 1990;5(3):371-9.

8.   Carter SR, Moles, R.J., Krass, I., Kritikos, V.S. . Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2016;80(6):95.

9.   Birkás B, Matuz, A., Csathó, Á. Examining the Deviation From Balanced Time Perspective in the Dark Triad Throughout Adulthood. Frontiers in Psychology. 2018;9:1046.

10. Andre L, van Vianen, A.E.M., Peetsma, T.T.D., Oort, F.J.  Scherag, A. Motivational power of future time perspective: Meta-analyses in education, work, and health. PLoS One. 2018;13(1):e0190492.

11. Sobol-Kwapińska M, Jankowski, T., Przepiorka, A., Oinyshi, I., Sorokowski, P., Zimbardo, P. What Is the Structure of Time? A Study on Time Perspective in the United States, Poland, and Nigeria. Front Psychol. 2018;9:2078.

12. Gall MD, Walter, R.B., Joyce, P.G., N.Y. Educational Research: An Introduction. White Plains. USA: Longman Publishers; 1996.

13. Stolarski M, Wiberg, B., Osin, E. Assessing temporal harmony: The issue of a balanced time perspective. In: Stolarski M. FN, van Beek W, editor. Time Perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application. Switzerland: Springer-Verlag; 2015. p. 57-71.

14. Worrell FC, Mello, Z.R. The Reliability and Validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Scores in Academically Talented Adolescents. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 2007;67(3):487-504.

15. Kröner J, Goussios, C., Schaitz, C., Streb, J., Sosic-Vasic, Z. The Construct Validity of the German Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-A) within Primary and Secondary School Children. Frontiers in Psychology. 2017;8:1032.

16. Zebardast A, Besharat, M.A., Haghighatgoo, M. The Relationship between Self-Regulation and Time Perspective in Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2011;30:939-43.

17. Leotti LA, Iyengar, S.S., Ochsner, K.N. Born to Choose: The Origins and Value of the Need for Control. Trends in cognitive sciences. 2010;14(10):457-63.

18. Vandevelde S, Van Keer, H., Rosseel, Y. Measuring the complexity of upper primary school children’s self-regulated learning: a multi-component approach. Contemp Educ Psychol. 2013;38:407-25.

19. Zimbardo PG, Boyd, J.N. Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1999;77(6):1271-88.

20. Bild JD, Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W. Understanding the association between future time perspective and self- regulated learning through the Lens of self- determination theory. Journal of Learning and Instruction. 2010;23:1-13.

21. Hall PA, Fong, G.T. Temporal self-regulation theory: A model for individual health behavior. Health Psychology Review. 2007;1:6-52.

22. Joireman. J. B, D., Sprott, D., Spangenberg, E., Schultz, J. Consideration of future consequences, ego-depletion, and self-control: Support for distinguishing between CFC immediate and CFC-future sub-scales. Personality and Individual Differences. 2008;48:15-21.

23. Wills TA, Sandy, J.M., Yaeger, A.M. Time perspective and early-onset substance use: A model based on stress-coping theory. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 2001;15:118-25.

24. Adams J, White, M. Time Perspective in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Body Mass Index. Health Psychology Review. 2009;28(1):83-90.

25. Crockett RA, Weinman, J., Hankins, M., Marteau, T. Time orientation and health-related behaviour: measurement in general population samples. Psychology & Health. 2009;24(3):333-50.

26. Guthrie LC, Butler, S.C., Ward, M.M. . Time perspective and socioeconomic status: a link to socioeconomic disparities in health? Social Science & Medicine. 2009.