Comparison of Health-Promoting Lifestyle and Health Locus of Control in Individuals with Hypertension and Healthy Individuals

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: Increase in the prevalence of hypertension has become a major health problem nowadays. It seems that psychological factors are involved in this chronic disease. The aim of the current research was to compare the health promotion lifestyle and the health locus of control in both individuals with hypertension and healthy individuals.
Method: The present study was a causal-comparative research in which 100 healthy individuals and 100 individuals with hypertension were selected through convenience sampling. To gather the data, the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) were used, and data were analyzed by independent t-test.
Results: Findings indicated that among the subscales of lifestyle, there are significant differences between the subscales of physical activity (p < 0.01), nutrition (p< 0.01), and interpersonal relationship (p < 0.01) in both groups.  In terms of health locus of control, there are significant differences in the subscales of chance control (p < 0.01) and external locus of control (p< 0.01).
Conclusion: Accordingly, health promoting lifestyle and health locus of control are two main psychological constructs related to hypertension. Therefore, focusing on these factors can be useful in the prevention and treatment of this chronic disease.

Keywords


References
1.   Merai R. CDC grand rounds: a public health approach to detect and control hypertension. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2016;65.
2.   Chajaee F, Pirzadeh A, Hasanzadeh A, Mostafavi F. Relationship between health literacy and knowledge among patients with hypertension in Isfahan province, Iran. Electronic physician. 2018;10(3):6470-7.
3.   Fuladvandi M, Safarpour H, Malekyan L, Moayedi S, Mahani MA, Salimi E. The Survey of self-regulation behaviors and related factors in elderly with hypertension in south-east of Iran. Health. 2017;9(04):592.
4.   Khatib R, Schwalm JD, Yusuf S, Haynes RB, McKee M, Khan M, et al. Patient and healthcare provider barriers to hypertension awareness, treatment and follow up: a systematic review and meta-analysis of qualitative and quantitative studies. PloS one. 2014;9(1):e84238.
5.   Sousa P, Gaspar P, Fonseca H, Hendricks C, Murdaugh C. Health promoting behaviors in adolescence: validation of the Portuguese version of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile. Jornal de pediatria. 2015;91(4):358-65.
6.   Tol A, Tavassoli E, Shariferad GR, Shojaeezadeh D. Health-promoting lifestyle and quality of life among undergraduate students at school of health, Isfahan university of medical sciences. Journal of education and health promotion. 2013;2:11.
7.   Nieuwlaat R, Schwalm JD, Khatib R, Yusuf S. Why are we failing to implement effective therapies in cardiovascular disease? European heart journal. 2013;34(17):1262-9.
8.   Mirzaie G, Ahmady K, ali Mhrabe H, Masoenlavasane G, Azadfallah P. The prediction of lifestyle according to personality traits. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2014;8(2):177-84.
9.   Nacar M, Baykan Z, Cetinkaya F, Arslantas D, Ozer A, Coskun O, et al. Health promoting lifestyle behaviour in medical students: a multicentre study from Turkey. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP. 2014;15(20):8969-74.
10. Mohseni Pouya H, Hajimiri K, Esmaeili Shahmirzadi S, Golshani S, Amrei H, Seifi Makrani A. Relationship between Health Promoting Behaviors and Severity of Coronary Artery Stenosis in angiography department in Mazandaran Heart Center. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2015;25(130):19-29.
11. Rupani M. Social determinants of diabetes and hypertension in an urban slum of Gujarat, Western India: a Cross-Sectional Study. Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences. 2019;18(1).
12. Jaiyungyuen U, Suwonnaroop N, Priyatruk P, Moopayak K, editors. Factors influencing health-promoting behaviors of older people with hypertension. 1st Mae Fah Luang University International Conference; 2012.
13. Kemppainen J, Bomar PJ, Kikuchi K, Kanematsu Y, Ambo H, Noguchi K. Health promotion behaviors of residents with hypertension in Iwate, Japan and North Carolina, USA. Japan Journal of Nursing Science. 2011;8(1):20-32.
14. Kamran A, Azadbakht L, Sharifirad G, Mahaki B, Mohebi S. The relationship between blood pressure and the structures of Pender's health promotion model in rural hypertensive patients. Journal of education and health promotion. 2015;4.
15. Cassidy T, Hilton S. Family health culture, health locus of control and health behaviours in older children. J Pediatric Med Care. 2017;1(1):4-9.
16. Hatamloo-Sadabadi M, Kheiroddin JB, Poursharifi H. The role of general causality orientations on self-care behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2011;5(3):245-51.
17. Kostka T, Jachimowicz V. Relationship of quality of life to dispositional optimism, health locus of control and self-efficacy in older subjects living in different environments. Quality of Life Research. 2010;19(3):351-61.
18. Aghamolaei T, Zare S. Quality gap of educational services in viewpoints of students in Hormozgan University of medical sciences. BMC medical education. 2008;8(1):34.
19. Kretchy IA, Owusu-Daaku FT, Danquah S. Locus of control and anti-hypertensive medication adherence in Ghana. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2014;17(Suppl 1).
20. Omeje O, Nebo C. The influence of locus control on adherence to treatment regimen among hypertensive patients. Patient preference and adherence. 2011;5:141.
21. Moshki M, Tavakolizadeh J, Bahri N. The relationship between health locus of control and life style in pregnant women. Armaghane danesh. 2010;15(2):161-70.
22. Walker S, Hill-Polerecky D. Psychometric evaluation of the health-promoting lifestyle profile II. Unpublished manuscript, University of Nebraska Medical Center. 1996:120-26.
23. Mohammadi Zeidi I, Pakpour Hajiagha A, Mohammadi Zeidi B. Reliability and validity of Persian version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2012;21(1):102-13.
24. Ubbiali A, Donati D, Chiorri C, Bregani V, Cattaneo E, Maffei C, et al. The usefulness of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Form C (MHLC-C) for HIV+ subjects: an Italian study. AIDS care. 2008;20(4):495-502.
25. Moshki M, Ghofranipour F, Hajizadeh E, Azadfallah P. Validity and reliability of the multidimensional health locus of control scale for college students. BMC Public health. 2007;7(1):295.
26. Saber Moghaddam M, Rajabzade R, Nasiry Z. Relationship of lifestyle and hypertension in administrative employees in Bojnourd rural areas. J North Khorasan Univ Med Sci. 2013;5:785-91.
27. Aghamolaei T, Hossaini FS, Farshidi H, Madani A, Ghanbarnejad A. Lifestyle of patients With High blood pressure in rural areas of Jahrom, Iran. Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014;1(1):1-9.
28. Baroogh N, Teimouri F, Saffari M, Sadeh SH, Mehran A. Hypertension and lifestyle in 24-65 year old people in Qazvin Kosar region in 2007. Pajoohandeh Journal. 2010;15(5):193-8.
29. Pender NJ. Health promotion model manual. 2011.
30. Mansourian M, Qorbani M, Shafieyan N, Asayesh H, Rahimzadeh AHIMZADEH BH, Shafieyan HAFIEYAN Z, et al. Association between life style and hypertension in rural population of Gorgan. 2012.
31. Ho NT, Pathumarak N, Hengudomsub P. Factors influencing health-promoting behaviors of of Vietnamese patients with heypertention. Journal of Science, Technology, and Humanities. 2012;10(1):65-71.
32. Huai P, Xun H, Reilly KH, Wang Y, Ma W, Xi B. Physical activity and risk of hypertension: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Hypertension. 2013;62(6):1021-6.
33. Pescatello LS, Buchner DM, Jakicic JM, Powell KE, Kraus WE, Bloodgood B, et al. Physical Activity to Prevent and Treat Hypertension: A Systematic Review. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2019;51(6):1314-23.
34. Schoenthaler AM, Schwartz J, Cassells A, Tobin JN, Brondolo E. Daily interpersonal conflict predicts masked hypertension in an urban sample. American journal of hypertension. 2010;23(10):1082-8.
35. Broudy R, Brondolo E, Coakley V, Brady N, Cassells A, Tobin JN, et al. Perceived ethnic discrimination in relation to daily moods and negative social interactions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2007;30(1):31-43.
36. Tibebu A, Mengistu D, Negesa L. Adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications and factors associated for hypertensive patients attending chronic follow-up units of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Patient preference and adherence. 2017;11:323.
37. Osamor PE. Social support and management of hypertension in South-west Nigeria. Cardiovascular journal of Africa. 2015;26(1):29.
38. Magrin ME, D'addario M, Greco A, Miglioretti M, Sarini M, Scrignaro M, et al. Social support and adherence to treatment in hypertensive patients: a meta-analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2014;49(3):307-18.
39. Livingstone KM, McNaughton SA. Diet quality is associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):1037.
40. Parker W-a, Steyn NP, Levitt NS, Lombard CJ. Health promotion services for patients having non-comminicable diseases: Feedback from patients and health care providers in Cape Town, South Africa. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):503.
41. Kashdan TB, Nezlek JB. Whether, when, and how is spirituality related to well-being? Moving beyond single occasion questionnaires to understanding daily process. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2012;38(11):1523-35.
42. Nekouei ZK, Yousefy A, Doost HTN, Manshaee G, Sadeghei M. Structural Model of psychological risk and protective factors affecting on quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease: A psychocardiology model. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2014;19(2):90.
43. Sparrenberger F, Cichelero F, Ascoli A, Fonseca F, Weiss G, Berwanger O, et al. Does psychosocial stress cause hypertension? A systematic review of observational studies. Journal of human hypertension. 2009;23(1):12.
44. Li J, Yu J, Chen X, Quan X, Zhou L. Correlations between health-promoting lifestyle and health-related quality of life among elderly people with hypertension in Hengyang, Hunan, China. Medicine. 2018;97(25).
45. Náfrádi L, Nakamoto K, Schulz PJ. Is patient empowerment the key to promote adherence? A systematic review of the relationship between self-efficacy, health locus of control and medication adherence. PloS one. 2017;12(10):e0186458.
46. Hassanzadeh R, TOULIATI M, Hosseini S, Davari F. Relationship between health locus of control and health behaviors. Iranian journal of psychiatry and clinical psychology 2006;12(3):277-81.