The Relationship between Girls' Anxiety and their Parental Parenting Styles Mediated by the Traits of Extroversion and Introversion

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: Anxiety disorders can affect all attitudes, behaviors and even individuals’ state, and these effects in adolescent girls is considered to be far broader than adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the girls' anxiety with their parental parenting styles mediated by the traits of extroversion and introversion.
Methods: The research method was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population of the study included all the 15,872 adolescent girls in Qom city in 2017-2018. The sample size according to the Cochran Formula consisted of 375 girls who were selected by multistage cluster sampling method. The data collection tool was the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Baumrind Parenting Questionnaire, and Spielberger Anxiety Inventory.
Results: The results showed that the traits of extroversion, introversion and parental parenting styles have a direct and significant effect on the anxiety in girls at the level of 0.05. In an indirect way, traits of extroversion and introversion in junior girls show a mediating role in the relationship between parental parenting styles and anxiety, and in general, the conceptual model was approved. Also, 27% of girls' anxiety variance was explained by the variables of extroversion, introversion and parental parenting styles.
Conclusion: These findings are based on the family systematic theory on psychological intercourse of adolescent girls with the parents’ behavior patterns in the family environment and on expressing the effects of personality traits on promoting parent-child relationship health and the girl’s anxiety.

Keywords


References

1.   Patton GC SS, Santelli JS, Ross DA, Afifi R, Allen NB, Arora M, Azzopardi P, Baldwin W, Bonell C, Kakuma R. . Our future: a Lancet commission on adolescent health and wellbeing. The Lancet. 2016;11(387):2423-502.

2.   Alemán-Díaz AY BS, Siebers LL, Chukwujama O, Fenski F, Henking CN, Kaminska K, Kuttumuratova A, Weber MW. . Child and adolescent health in Europe: monitoring implementation of policies and provision of services. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2018;1(12):891-904.

3.   Sawyer SM AP, Wickremarathne D, Patton GC. . The age of adolescence. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2018;1(3):223-31.

4.   Stapinski LA AR, Heron J, Montgomery AA, Stallard P. . Peer victimization during adolescence: Concurrent and prospective impact on symptoms of depression and anxiety. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping. 2015;2(1):105-25.

5.   Baxter AJ SK, Ferrari AJ, Norman RE, Vos T, Whiteford HA. . Challenging the myth of an “epidemic” of common mental disorders: trends in the global prevalence of anxiety and depression between 1990 and 2010. Depression and anxiety. 2014;31(6):506-22.

6.   Pavlova B PR, Alda M, Uher R. . Lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in people with bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2015;1(8):710-7.

7.   M. L. Generalized anxiety disorder. . Encyclopedia of psychopharmacology. 2015;3(6):699-702.

8.   Stubbs B AY, Myint PK, Smith TO. . Prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety in osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age and ageing. 2016;20(2):228-63.

9.   Spielberger CD G-RF, Martinez-Urrutia A, Natalicio LF, Natalicio DS. . The state-trait anxiety inventory. Revista Interamericana de Psicologia/Interamerican Journal of Psychology. 1971;5(4):247-61.

10. Pereira AI BL, Mendonça D, Muris P. . he relationships among parental anxiety, parenting, and children’s anxiety: The mediating effects of children’s cognitive vulnerabilities. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2014;1(2):399-409.

11. Darling N SL. Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological bulletin. 1993;113(3):487-92.

12. F. A. Attachment anxiety: parenting culture, adolescence and the family film in the US. Journal of Children and Media. 2017;3(2):214-42.

13. Park I HS. Relationship between state-trait anxiety, parenting efficacy, parenting stress in mothers of children with amblyopia. Journal of Agricultural Medicine and Community 2015;1(3):137-47.

14. D. B. The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. The Journal of Early Adolescence. 1991;11:56-95.

15. JR. B. Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of personality assessment. 1991;1(1):110-9.

16. Hinnant JB ES, Tu KM, El-Sheikh M. . Permissive parenting, deviant peer affiliations, and delinquent behavior in adolescence: The moderating role of sympathetic nervous system reactivity. Journal of abnormal child psychology. 2016;1(6):1071-81.

17. Barton AL HJ. Permissive parenting and mental health in college students: Mediating effects of academic entitlement Journal of American college health. 2016;2(1):1-8.

18. Levinson AR SB, Nelson B, Bress JN, Hajcak G. . Authoritarian parenting predicts reduced electrocortical response to observed adolescent offspring rewards. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience. 2017;1(3):363-71.

19. King KA VR, Merianos AL. . Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study. Journal of prevention & intervention in the community. 2016;2(2):130-9.

20. Yeung JW CC, Kwok SY, Leung JT. . Socialization effects of authoritative parenting and its discrepancy on children.  Journal of child and family studies. 2016;1(6):1980-90.

21. Denham SA M-CJ, Strandberg K, Auerbach S, Blair K. . arental contributions to preschoolers' emotional competence: Direct and indirect effects. Motivation and emotion. 1997;1(1):65-86.

22. Stormshak EA BK, McMahon RJ, Lengua LJ. . Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Journal of clinical child psychology. 2000;1(1):17-29.

23. van Aken C JM, Verhoeven M, van Aken MA, Deković M, Denissen JJ. . Parental personality, parenting and toddlers' externalising behaviours. European Journal of Personality: Published for the European Association of Personality Psychology. 2007;21(8):993-1015.

24. Propper C WM, Halpern CT, Carbone MA, Cox M. . Parenting quality, DRD4, and the prediction of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood. Developmental Psychobiology: The Journal of the International Society for Developmental Psychobiology. 2007;9(6):619-32.

25. Khosravi M. Bigdeli I. The Relationship between Personality Characteristics and Test Anxiety in Students. Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2008;2(1):13-24.(Persian). .

26. G. M. Traits, cognitive processes and adaptation: An elegy for Hans Eysenck's personality theory. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016;1(103):61-7.

27. Furnham A PK. Eysenck’s Personality Theory. Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. 2014;1(5):38-45.

28. Hoerger M CM, Sörensen S, Chapman BP, Kaukeinen K, Tu X, Duberstein PR. . Personality and perceived health in spousal caregivers of patients with lung cancer: the roles of neuroticism and extraversion. Journal of aging research. 2016;1(1):1-9.

29. Danesh E. Kakavand A. Saliminia A. Sabeghi LS, M. . Relationship between five personality factors with Peruvian childhood in mothers of hyperactivity and attention deficit children. New Educational Ideas, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Alzahra University. 2015;10(1).

30. L. IKJ. The relationship between perception of parenting and anxiety patterns of parents and youth with anxiety. Quarterly Journal of Education and Evaluation, seventh year. 2014;7(25):43-61. (Persian).

31. Reitman D AJ. Parenting practices and their relation to anxiety in young adulthood. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2010;1(6):562-72.

32. Akse J HB, Engels R, Raaijmakers Q, Meeus W. . Co‐occurrence of depression and delinquency in personality types. European Journal of Personality: Published for the European Association of Personality Psychology. 2007;21(2):235-56.

33. Chorpita BF BT, Barlow DH. . Perceived control as a mediator of family environment in etiological models of childhood anxiety–republished article. Behavior therapy. 2016;1(5):622-32.

34. Quach AS EN, Riley PJ, Falconier MK, Fang X. . Effects of parental warmth and academic pressure on anxiety and depression symptoms in Chinese adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2015;1(1):106-16.

35. Abbasi Z AS, & Talebi H. . Structural equation modeling of separation anxiety in children based on maternal anxiety, mother-child relation, maternal attachment style, children’s incompatibility schemas, and child attachment style. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2016;7:54-62.(Persian).

36. Gouze KR HJ, Bryant FB, Lavigne JV. . Parenting and anxiety: Bi-directional relations in young children. Journal of abnormal child psychology. 2017;1(6):1169-80.

37. Cordeiro PM PM, Lens W, Lacante M, Luyckx K. . Parental parenting styles, identity development, and adjustment in career transitions: The mediating role of psychological needs. Journal of Career Development. 2018;45(1):83-97.

38. Bakhshi Pour R BA, Khosroshahi P. . Psychometric properties of the revised Eysenck Personality Form (EPQ-RS). Two Quarterly Journal of the Psychological Society. 2007;1(4):28-36. (Persian).

39. Amiri S GGM, Abbas Zadeh Z. . Comparison of emotional structures (Ambivalence and Alexithymia) and personality traits based on brain-behavioral systems in patients and normal individuals. SSU_Journals. 2018;15(1):16-26. (Persian).

40. G. E. Study and comparison of parenting practices of mothers of children with behavioral disorders and normal children's mothers and the effect of mothers' education on children's behavioral disorders. : Iranian Psychiatric Institute; 1992.

41. Spielberger CD GR, Lushene R, Vagg PR, Jacobs GA. . Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory Palo Alto, CA: Psychologists Press; 1983.

42. F. TMNMK. Comparison of mood nougat, defensive styles and adverbial anxiety in patients with generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, and normal people. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2014;5(2):67-76. (Persian).

43. S. SMM. Correlation of attachment styles with adjective-state anxiety. Journal of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University. 2013;22(4):307-12. (Persian).

44. Russell DW KJ, Spoth R, Altmaier EM. . Analyzing data from experimental studies: A latent variable structural equation modeling approach. Journal of counseling psychology. 1998;45(1):1-8.

45. Dumas JE LP. Mother‐child Relationships as sources of support or stress: A comparison of competent, average, aggressive, and anxious dyads. Child development. 1993;1(6):1732-54.

46. Larsen RJ KT. Extraversion, neuroticism and susceptibility to positive and negative mood induction procedures. Personality and Individual Differences. 1989;1(12):1221-8.

47. Kardum I H-KJ. The relationship between Eysenck's personality traits, coping styles and moods. Personality, and Individual Differences. 1996;1(3):341-50.

48. M. GI. Life experience, development, and child psychopathology. Chichester, England: Wiely; 1990.

49. M. E. Anxiety and cognition: A unified theory. NY: Psychology Press; 2014.

50. Siqueland L KP, Steinberg L. . Anxiety in children: Perceived family environments and observed family interaction. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 1996;1(2):225-37.

51. AF. DM. Parental control in child rearing and trait anxiety in young adults. Psychological reports. 1986;59(2):477-8.

52. Murray LE ONL. Neuroticism and extraversion mediate the relationship between having a sibling with developmental disabilities and anxiety and depression symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2019;15(243):232-40.

53. Fayyaz R SZ, Ameri F, Besharat MA. . Moderating Effect Of Introversion and Extroversion on the Relationship between Parental Parenting Styles and Ego Strength. Hayat. 2016;1(3):44-50. (Persian).

54. JJ. G. Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology. 2002;39(3):281-91.

55. JJ. G. Emotion regulation: taking stock and moving forward. Emotion. 2013;13(3):359-63.

56. Campbell-Sills L BD. Incorporating emotion regulation into conceptualizations and treatments of anxiety, and mood disorders. New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press.; 2007,6. 542-59.