Behavioral Parent Training and Psychological Problems in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 M.A. in Clinical psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

4 M.A in psychology, Department of psychology, Yazd branch, Islamic azad university, Yazd, iran

Abstract

Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of parental behavior training of mothers with autism spectrum disorder, on reducing anxiety, depression and stress in mothers.
Methods: This was an experimental study with pretest, posttest, and a control group. The statistical population of the research was consisted of all mothers who have children with autism disorder. The sample of the research was compromised of 30 mothers with autistic children who were selected through available sampling and were blind matched in the form of two groups based on different variables such as age, education, economic status. The research tools were included Beck Depression Inventory- (BDI, II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) And Parenting Stress Index (PSI). The parents were trained during 9 sessions in examination group, each of which lasted for 90 minutes. Finally, both groups answered to the questionnaires as post test. The data was analyzed using ANCOVA test.
Results: The results analysis shows the impact of experimental application on reducing the level of anxiety and depression of mothers in experimental group comparing control group (p<0/05). Parents’ behavioral training also led to reduce parenting stress in examination group (p<0/05).
Conclusion: In general, results show that mothers’ behavioral training will reduce their psychological problems and prevent the parenting stress from increasing in mothers with autistic children.

Keywords


References
1. Association AP. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
disorders (DSM-5®): American Psychiatric Pub; 2013.
2. Matson JL, LoVullo SV. Trends and topics in autism spectrum
disorders research. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders.
2009;3(1):252-7.
3. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of
psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry: Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins; 2011.
4. Tine MT. Uncovering a differentiated Theory of Mind in
children with autism and Asperger syndrome: Boston College;
2009.
5. Beadle‐ Brown J, Murphy G, Wing L. The Camberwell cohort
25 years on: Characteristics and changes in skills over time.
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities.
2006;19(4):317-29.
6. Rutter M, Schopler E. Autism and pervasive developmental
disorders: Concepts and diagnostic issues. Journal of autism and
developmental disorders. 1987;17(2):159-86.
7. Schlosser RW, Wendt O. Effects of augmentative and alternative
communication intervention on speech production in children
with autism: A systematic review. American Journal of Speech-
Language Pathology. 2008;17(3):212-30.
8. Roberts J, Williams K, Carter M, Evans D, Parmenter T, Silove
N, et al. A randomised controlled trial of two early intervention
programs for young children with autism: Centre-based with
parent program and home-based. Research in Autism Spectrum
Disorders. 2011;5(4):1553-66.
9. Koning C, Magill-Evans J, Volden J, Dick B. Efficacy of
cognitive behavior therapy-based social skills intervention for
Gheydari et al.
47 Int J Behav Sci Vol.12, No.1, Spring 2018
school-aged boys with autism spectrum disorders. Research in
Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2013;7(10):1282-90.
10. Bailey DB, Golden RN, Roberts J, Ford A. Maternal depression
and developmental disability: Research critique. Developmental
Disabilities Research Reviews. 2007;13(4):321-9.
11. Olsson MB, Hwang C. Depression in mothers and fathers of
children with intellectual disability. Journal of intellectual
disability research. 2001;45(6):535-43.
12. Hedov G, Annerén G, Wikblad K. Self-perceived health in
Swedish parents of children with Down's syndrome. Quality of
life research. 2000;9(4):415-22.
13. Hedov G, Wikblad K, Annerén G. Sickness absence in Swedish
parents of children with Down’s syndrome: relation to selfperceived
health, stress and sense of coherence. Journal of
Intellectual Disability Research. 2006;50(7):546-52.
14. Smith TB, Oliver MN, Innocenti MS. Parenting stress in families
of children with disabilities. American journal of
orthopsychiatry. 2001;71(2):257.
15. Chronis AM, Chacko A, Fabiano GA, Wymbs BT, Pelham WE.
Enhancements to the behavioral parent training paradigm for
families of children with ADHD: Review and future directions.
Clinical child and family psychology review. 2004;7(1):1-27.
16. Keen D, Couzens D, Muspratt S, Rodger S. The effects of a
parent-focused intervention for children with a recent diagnosis
of autism spectrum disorder on parenting stress and competence.
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2010;4(2):229-41.
17. Kaminski JW, Valle LA, Filene JH, Boyle CL. A meta-analytic
review of components associated with parent training program
effectiveness. Journal of abnormal child psychology.
2008;36(4):567-89.
18. Sanders MR, Woolley M. The relationship between maternal
self‐ efficacy and parenting practices: Implications for parent
training. Child: care, health and development. 2005;31(1):65-73.
19. Tonge B, Brereton A, Kiomall M, Mackinnon A, King N,
Rinehart N. Effects on parental mental health of an education and
skills training program for parents of young children with autism:
A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy
of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2006;45(5):561-9.
20. Dempsey I, Keen D, Pennell D, O’Reilly J, Neilands J. Parent
stress, parenting competence and family-centered support to
young children with an intellectual or developmental disability.
Research in developmental disabilities. 2009;30(3):558-66.
21. Barkley RA. Defiant children: A clinician's manual for
assessment and parent training: Guilford press; 2013.
22. Abidin RR. Introduction to the special issue: The stresses of
parenting. Journal of clinical child psychology. 1990;19(4):298-
301.
23. Krulik T, Turner-Henson A, Kanematsu Y, Al-Ma'aitah R, Swan
J, Holaday B. Parenting stress and mothers of young children
with chronic illness: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Pediatric
Nursing. 1999;14(2):130-40.
24. Dadsetan P, Azghandi A, . AHa. Parenting stress and General
health, research about relationship between parenting stress with
general health among mothers. Journal Iranian Psychologist.
2006;2(7):20-30.
25. Tajeri B. stress, religion attitude and awareness of mothers with
mental retarded child and their relation to child acceptance.
1990Tehran: Tehran Psychiatric Inistituation. 1990.
26. Beck AT, Steer RA, Carbin MG. Psychometric properties of the
Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation.
Clinical psychology review. 1988;8(1):77-100.
27. Hamid N. The effect stress management training in depression,
anxiety and infertility in the women. Behavi science Jol.
2012:141-51.
28. Beck A, Steer R. Beck anxiety inventory Manual. The
Psychological Corporation. Harcourt Brace & company. San
Antonio. 1993.
29. Abedin A, Molaie A. The effectiveness of Group Movie Therapy
(GMT) on parental stress reduction in mothers of children with
mild mental retardation in Tehran. Procedia-Social and
Behavioral Sciences. 2010;5:988-93.
30. Barlow J, Powell L, Gilchrist M. The influence of the training
and support programme on the self-efficacy and psychological
well-being of parents of children with disabilities: A controlled
trial. Complementary therapies in clinical practice.
2006;12(1):55-63.
31. Raikes HA, Thompson RA. Efficacy and social support as
predictors of parenting stress among families in poverty. Infant
mental health journal. 2005;26(3):177-90.
32. Davison G, Neule JM. Abnormal psychology (8th en). 2000.
33. Barlow JH, Powell LA, Gilchrist M, Fotiadou M. The
effectiveness of the Training and Support Program for parents of
children with disabilities: a randomized controlled trial. Journal
of Psychosomatic Research. 2008;64(1):55-62.
34. Field TM, Hernandez-Reif M, Quintino O, Schanberg S, Kuhn
C. Elder retired volunteers benefit from giving massage therapy
to infants. Journal of Applied Gerontology. 1998;17(2):229-39.
35. Eisenhower AS, Baker BL, Blacher J. Children's delayed
development and behavior problems: Impact on mothers'
perceived physical health across early childhood. Social Science
& Medicine. 2009;68(1):89-99.
36. Pinquart M, Sörensen S. Associations of stressors and uplifts of
caregiving with caregiver burden and depressive mood: a metaanalysis.
The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological
Sciences and Social Sciences. 2003;58(2):P112-P28.