Development of the Persian Version of the Integrative Hope Scale: A Review of Psychometric Indices

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Psychology, Tarbiat Modares University

2 Department of psychology,Tarbiat Modares university. Tehran. Iran.

3 Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences


Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to prepare a Persian version of the Integrated Hope Scale along with examining its reliability and validity.
Methods: Therefore, 230 Master’s and Ph.D. students of the Tarbiat Modares University were selected, 10 participants for each item (total: 23 items). The convenience sampling method was used in the study, and participants filled out the translated version of the Integrated Hope Scale (IHS), General Health Scale (GHS), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Factor analysis, face and content validity, as well as the convergent and divergent validity, were used to assess the overall validity of the questionnaire.
Results: Results of the factor analysis, that was performed using the parallel analysis method, confirmed that there were four factors in the scale: trust and confidence, lack of vision, positive orientation towards the future, and social communication and personal values. These four factors were similar to those in the original scale. The split-half method showed that the reliability of the scale was 0.83, and the internal consistency index (Cronbach's alpha) indicated that the validity of the total scale was 0.72 and that of the subscales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84. Conclusion: Based on these results, it seems that the IHS enjoys good validity and reliability and has the necessary adequacy to be used in future studies.


1. Chimick WT, Nekolaichak CHL. Exploring the links
between depression integrity, and hope in the elderly.
Journal psychiatry. 2004; 49: 428-433.
2. Cohen-Chen S, Crisp RJ, Halperin E. Perceptions of a
Changing World Induce Hope and Promote Peace in
Intractable Conflicts. Personality and Social Psychology
Bulletin. 2015; 41(4): 498 –512.
3. Lazarus R. S.Hope: An emotion and a vital coping resource
against despair. Social Research. 1999; 66: 653-678.
4. Hawro T, Maurer M, Hawro M, Kaszuba A,
Cierpiałkowska L, Krolikowska M, Zalewska A. In
psoriasis, levels of hope and quality of life are linked. Arch
Dermatol Res. 2014; 306:661–666.
5. Flaskas C. Holding hope and hopelessness: Therapeutic
engagements with the balance of hope. Journal of Family
Therapy. 2007; 29(3):186-202.
6. Idan O, Margalit M. Hope theory in education systems. In
book: Psychology of hope, Chapter: 5, Nova Science
Publishers Inc. 2013.p.139-160.
7. Lopez SJ, Snyder CR, and Pedrotti JT. Hope: Many
definitions, many measures. In: Snyder CR, Lopez SJ.
Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models
and measures. Washington, DC: American Psychological
Association. 2003.p .91-106.
8. Snyder C.R. Hope Theory: Rainbows in the mind.
Psychological Inquiry. 2002; 13(4): 249-275.
9. Snyder C.R, Feldman D.B. Hope for the many: An
empowering social agenda. In: Snyder CR. Handbook of
hope: Theory, measures, and applications. San Diego,CA:
Academic Press, 2000.p. 402-415.
10. Grewal P K, Porter J. Hope theory: A framework for
understanding Death studies. Washington. 2007; 31(2):
11. Meadows LA., Kaslow NJ, Thompson MP, & Jurkovice
GJ. Protective against suicide attempt risk among African
American women experiencing intimate partner violence.
American journal of community psychology. 2005; 36(1-
2): 106-121.
12. Snyder CR. Genesis: Birth and growth of hope. In: Snyder
CR. Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and
applications. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 2000. p. 25-
13. King LA, Hicks JA, Krull JL and Del Gaiso AK. Positive
affect and the experience of meaning in life. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology. 2006; 90(1): 179-196.
14. Phan HP. Examination of time perspective, Hope, selfefficacy
and ethnic identity: A structural equation model.
Australian Association for research in Education. 2009.
15. Esteves M, Scoloveno R, Mahat G, yarcheski A, scoloveno
M. An Integrative Review of adolescent Hope. Journal of
pediatric Nursing. 2013; 28: 105-113.
16. Morse J, Doberneck B. Delineating the concept of hope.
Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 1995; 27: 277 –
17. Dufault K and Martocchio BC. Symposium on
compassionate care and the dying experience. Hope: its
spheres and dimensions. Nurs Clin North Am. 1985;
18. Herth K. Development and refinement of an instrument of
hope. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice. 1991;
5(1): 39-51.
19. Arnau RC, Martinez P, De Guzman I, Herth K, Yoshiyuki
Konishi C. A Spanish-Language Version of the Herth
Hope Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation in
a Peruvian Sample. Educational and Psychological
Measurement. 2010; 70(5): 808 –824.
20. Schrank B, Woppmann A, Sibitz I, Lauber C.
Development and validation of an integrative scale to
assess hope. Blackwell Publishing Ltd Health
Expectations. 2010; 14: 417–428.
21. Habibi A, Adanvar M. Structural Equation Modeling and
Factor Analysis. Iranian Students Booking Agency. 2017.
[in Persian]
22. Boyle G, Saklofske D, Matthews G. Measures of
personality and social psychological constructs. Academic
Press is an imprint of Elsevier. 2015. p. 58-59.
23. Bakhshipour R, Dezhkam M. A confirmatory factor
analysis of the positive affect and negative affect scales
(PANAS). Journal of psychology. 2006; 4(36): 351-
365.[in Persian]
24. Noorbala AA, Bagheri yazdi SA, Mohammad K. The
Validation of General Health Questionnaire- 28 as a
Psychiatric Screening Tool. Hakim Research Journal.
2009; 11(4): 47- 53.[in Persian]
25. Werneke U, Goldberg P, Yalcin I, Ustun BT. The stability
of the factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire.
Psychological Medicine. 2000; 3(4): 823-829
26. Bahmani B, Asgari A. National standardization and
evaluation of psychometric indices of general health
questionnaire (GHQ) for medical students of the country.
Publication of the Third Student Mental Health Seminar.
2006. p. 62-70. [in Persian]
27. Taghavi M. Validity and reliability of general health
questionnaire. Journal of Psychology. 2001; 20: 381-
398.[in Persian]
28. Hayton JC, Allen DG, Scarpello V. Factor Retention
Decisions in Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Tutorial on
Parallel Analysis. Organizational Research Methods.
2004; 7: 191-205.
29. Meyers LS, Gamst G, Guarino AJ. Applied Multivariate
Research: Design and Interpretation. SAGE publication.
30. Pallant J. SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by Step Guide to
Data Analysis Using IBM SPSS. Allen & Unwin. 2007.
31. Kerlinger FN. Foundations of behavioral research. Holt,
Persian Version of the Integrative Hope Scale
Int J Behav Sci Vol.12, No.1, Spring 2018 8
Rinehart and Winston. 1986.
32. Sharpe D, McElheran J, Whelton WJ. Assessing the Factor
Structure of the Integrative Hope Scale. Assessment
(SAGE Journals). 2017; 1-12.
33. Snyder CR, Lopez SJ. Positive psychology: The scientific
and practical explorations of human strengths. Thousand
Oaks, CA Sage. 2007.
34. Arnau RC, Rosen DH, Finch JF, Rhudy JL, Fortunato VJ.
Longitudinal effects of hope on depression and anxiety: A
latent variable analysis. Journal of Personality. 2007;
75(1): 43–64.
35. Roswarski TE, Dunn JP. The role of help and hope in
prevention and early intervention with suicidal
adolescents: implications for mental health counselors.
Journal of mental health counseling. 2009; 31(1): 34-46.
36. Chang EC, Desimon SHL. The influence of hope on
appraisals, coping, and dysphoria: a test of hope theory.
Journal of social and clinical psychology. 2001; 20(2):