The Role of Defense Styles and Defense Mechanisms in Prediction of Features of Borderline Personality in Non-clinical Samples

Document Type: Original Article

Author

PhD in Psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Human Science, Arak University, Arak, Iran

Abstract

AbstractIntroduction: The purpose of this research was to investigate role of defense styles and defense mechanisms in prediction of features of borderline personality in non-clinical samples.Methods: In this descriptive correlation study, 378 undergraduate students (181 males, 197 females) from the statistical population of students from all sections of Arak University during 2015 were selected through cluster random sampling method and filled in the questionnaire of style defense and Borderline Personality Scale. Data analysis was performed using correlation, regression analysis and analysis of variance.Results: The results indicated that features of borderline personality had a significant positive correlation with neurotic and immature defenses, and there was no significant relationship between features of borderline personality and mature defenses. Regression analysis showed that immature defenses could predict features of borderline personality. The results also revealed, five defenses (acting out, autistic fantasy, splitting, passive aggression and displacement) could predict features of borderline personality.Conclusion: Based on the results of the present stud, it can be concluded that immature defenses predicted higher levels of features of borderline personality. 

Keywords


  1. New AS, Triebwasser J, Charney DS. The case for shifting borderline personality disorder to axis I. Biological Psychiatry. 2008; 64:653-9.
  2. Leichsenring F, Leibing E, Kruse J, New AS, Leweke F. Borderline personality disorder. Lancet. 2011; 377:74-84.
  3. Mohammadzadeh A, Mahdavi N, Ahmadi TahourSoltani M.The Comparison of Borderline Traits among Schizophrenic patients, theirs First Degree Relatives and Normal People. Int J Behav Sci. 2016; 10(4): 162-166.
  4. Lenzenweger MF, Lane MC, Loranger AW, Kessler RC. DSM-IV personality disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol. Psychiatry. 2007; 62 (6), 553–564.
  5. Stinson FS, Dawson DA, Goldstein RB, Chou SP, Huang B, Smith SM, Ruan WJ, Pulay AJ, SAha TD, Pichering RP, Grant BF. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder: results from the wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008; 69 (4), 1033-45.
  6. Whalley HC, Nickson T, Pope M, Nicol K, Romaniuk L, Bastin M, Semple S, McIntosh AM, Hall J. White matter integrity and its association with affective and interpersonal symptoms in borderline personality disorder. NeuroImage: Clinical . 2015; 7 , 476–481.
  7. Clarkin JF, Levy KN, Lenzenweger MF, Kernberg OF. Evaluating three treatments for borderline personality disorder: A multiwave study. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2007; 164, 922-928.
  8. Giesen-Bloo J, van Dyck R, Spinhoven P, van Tilburg W, Dirksen C, van Asselt T, et al. Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Randomized trial of schema-focused therapy vs transference-focused psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2006; 63, 649-658.
  9. Kazdin AE. Mediators and mechanisms of change in psychotherapy research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 2007; 3, 1-27.
  10. Hosseini K, Shahgholian M, Abdollahi MH..Hardiness, defense mechanisms, negative self-image in applicants and non-applicants of cosmetic surgery. Int J Behav Sci. 2015; 10(1): 26-31.
  11. Bowins B. Personality disorders: a dimensional defense mechanism approach. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 2010; 64 (2): 153- 169.
  12. Bond M. Empirical Studies of Defense Style: Relationships with Psychopathology and Change. Harvard Review Of Psychiatry. 2004; 12 (5), 263-78.
  13. Olson T, Perry J, Janzen J, Petraglia J, Presniak M. Addressing and interpreting defense mechanisms in psychotherapy: general considerations. Psychiatry. 2011; 74(2):142- 65.
  14. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.) Washington, DC: Author.
  15. Cramer P. Defense Mechanisms in Psychology Today. Journal of American Psychology. 2000; 55 (6): 637-646.
  16. Vaillant GE. Ego mechanisms of defense and personality psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1994; 103(1):44–50.
  17. Bouchard M, Target M, Lecours S, Fonagy P, Tremblay L, Schachter A, Stein H. Mentalization in Adult Attachment Narratives: Reflective Functioning, Mental States, and Affect Elaboration Compared. Psychoanalytic Psychology. 2008; 25:47-66.
  18. Perry JC, Bond M. Defensive functioning [in personality disorders]. In J. Oldham, A. E. Skodol, & D. Bender (Eds.), The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of personalitydisorders (pp. 589-609). 2005. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
  19. Presniak MD, Olson TR, MacGregor MW. The role of defense mechanisms inborderline and antisocial personalities. Journal of Personality Assessment. 2010; 92, 137-145.
  20. Stern B, Caligor E, Clarkin J, Critchfi eld K, MacCornack V, Lenzenweger M, Kernberg O . The Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO): Preliminary Psychometrics in a Clinical Sample. Journal of Psychological Assessment. 2010; 91, p. 35-44.
  21. Chabrol H, Leichsenring F. Borderline personality organization and psychopathic traits in nonclinical adolescents: Relationships of identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms and reality testing with callousness and impulsivity traits. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. 2006; 70(2), 160–170.
  22. Blaya C, Dornelles M, Blaya R, Kipper L, Heldt E, Isolan L, Bond M, Manfro GG. Do defense mechanism vary according to the psychiatric disorder? Brazil Journal of Psychiatry. 2006; 28 (3): 179-183.
  23. Paris J, Zweig-Frank H, Bond M, Guzder J. Defense styles, hostility, and psychological risk factors in male patients with personality disorders. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1996; 184:153–158.
  24. Zanarini MC, Weingeroff JL, Frankenburg FR. Defense mechanisms associated with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorder. 2009; 23:113–121.
  25. Kramer U, de Roten Y, Perry JC, Despland JN. Beyond splitting: observer-rated defense mechanisms in borderline personality disorder. Psychoanalytic Psychology. 2013; 30: 3-15.
  26. Perry JC, Presniak MD, Olson TR. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. Psychiatry. 2013; 76(1), 31-52.
  27. Cramer P. Personality, personality disorders, and defense mechanisms. Journal of Personality. 1999; 67, 535-554.
  28. Claridge G, Brooks P. Schizotypy and hemisphere function: I. Theoretical considerations and the measurement of schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences. 1984; 5, 633–648.
  29. Mohammad Zadeh A, Goudarzi MA, Taghavi MR, Molazadeh J. The study of factor structure, validity, reliability and standardization of borderline personality scale (STB) in Shiraz. The Quarterly Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health. 2005; 7(27-28):75-89.
  30. Andrews G, Singh M, & Bond M. The Defense Style Questionnaire. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1993; 181, 246-256.
  31. Besharat M, Sharifi M, Irvani M. Relationship between affection styles and defense mechanism, Psychology Journal. 2001; 19, 277-289.
  32. Brad B. Psychological Defense Mechanisms: A new perspective. American Journal of Psychoanalysis. 2004; 64 (1): 1-26.
  33. Vaillant GE. Mental health. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003; 160: 1373–84.
  34. Kernberg OF. Borderline personality disorder and borderline personality organization: Psychopathology and psychotherapy. W: J. J. Magnavita (red.). Handbook of personality disorders. Theory and practice. (pp. 92-119). 2004. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  35. Cierpiałkowska L, Marszał M, Pieniążek M. Defensive functioning in individuals with borderlinepersonality organization in the light of empirical research. Polish Journal of Applied Psychology. 2012; 10 (1), 7–20.
  36. Koenigsberg HW, Harvey PD, Mitropoulou V, New AS, Goodman M, Silverman J, Serby M, Schopick F, Siever LJ. Are the interpersonal and identity disturbances in the borderline personality disorder criteria linked to the traits of affective instability and impulsivity? Journal of Personality Disorder. 2001; 15:358–370.