Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire in High School Students

Authors

1 Department of Psychology and Social Science, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Group of Psychology, Department of Psychology and social science, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran.

Abstract

Introduction: Experiential avoidance is a phenomenon that refers to a verbal regulation based on deliberate attempt to avoid or escape from personal experience, such as bodily sensations, emotions, thoughts, memories, behavioral predispositions that disturb perception. The aim of the present study was to consider the confirmatory factor analysis of experiential avoidance questionnaire in high school students in Iran.Methods: The study method was a descriptive and the statistical population included all second-high school students in Damavand city in Iran in 2016. Four hundred and thirty-four participants were randomly selected via multi-stage sampling method and completed 3 questionnaires: experiential avoidance, test anxiety, positive and negative perfectionism.Results: Results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that fit indicators such as normed Chi-square (X2/df = 2.542), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.060), comparative fit index (CFI = 0.923), goodness of fit index (GFI = 0.929) and adjusted fit index (AGFI = 0.897) support the six-factor structure of the experiential avoidance questionnaire. The six factors are behavioral avoidance; incompatibility distress; procrastination; distraction / suppression; denial / repression; and distress tolerance. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for these factors were obtained 0.75, 0.75, 0.54, 0.88, 0.66 and 0.77, respectively. The relationship between test anxiety and negative perfectionism was positive and significant, which is indicative of convergent validity; and the relationship between positive perfectionism with some of components of experiential avoidance were negative and significant, which is indicative of divergent validity.Conclusion: The results showed that this questionnaire have reliability and validity in Iranian students. Thus, psychologists and researchers have been recommended to use this questionnaire for diagnostic assessments, intervening programs, and identification of experiential avoidance dimensions.

Keywords


Abolqasemi, Abbas., Asadi Moghaddam, Aziza., Najarian, Feb., Shokrkon, Hussein. (1996). Construction and Validation of a Scale to measure anxiety. Journal of Education and Psychology, University of martyr Chamran, 3 (3 and 4): 74-61.
Basharat, Muhammad Ali. (2003). Reliability (reliability) credit positive and negative perfectionism scale. Journal of Psychological Science, 2 (8): 56-38.
Basharat, Muhammad Ali. (2008). Perfectionism and coping styles. Iranian Psychology, 17: 17-7.
Berman, N. C., Wheaton, M. G., McGrath, P., & Abramowitz, J. S. (2010). Predicting anxiety: the role of experiential avoidance and anxiety sensitivity. Journal of anxiety disorders, 24(1), 109–113. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.09.005
Chawla, N., & Ostafin, B. (2007). Experiential avoidance as a functional dimensional approach to psychopathology: an empirical review. Journal of clinical psychology, 63(9), 871–890. doi:10.1002/jclp.20400
Cribb, G., Moulds, M. L., & Carter, S. (2006). Rumination and Experiential Avoidance in Depression. Behaviour Change, 23(03), 165–176. doi:10.1375/bech.23.3.165
Cunha, M., Galhardo, A., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2016). Experiential avoidance, self-compassion, self-judgment and coping styles in infertility. Sexual & reproductive healthcare: official journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives, 10, 41–47. doi:10.1016/j.srhc.2016.04.001
Egan, S. (2005). An investigation of positive and negative perfectionism. Unpublished master's thesis, Curtin University of technology human research: Australia.
Gamez, W., Chmielewski, M., Kotov, R., Ruggero, C., & Watson, D. (2011). Development of a measure of experiential avoidance: the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire. Psychological assessment, 23(3), 692–713. doi:10.1037/a0023242
Garcia-Oliva, C., & Piqueras, J. A. (2016). Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents. Journal of behavioral addictions, 5(2), 293–303. doi:10.1556/2006.5.2016.041
Gerhart, J. I., Baker, C. N., Hoerger, M., & Ronan, G. F. (2014). Experiential avoidance and interpersonal problems: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 3(4), 291–298. doi:10.1016/j.jcbs.2014.08.003
Guadagnoli, E., & Velicer, W. F. (1988). Relation of sample size to the stability of component patterns. Psychological bulletin, 103(2), 265–275.
Hayes, S. C., Wilson, K. G., Gifford, E. V., Follette, V. M., & al, e. (1996). Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: A functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(6), 1152–1168. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.64.6.1152
Karekla, M., & Panayiotou, G. (2011). Coping and experiential avoidance: unique or overlapping constructs? Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 42(2), 163–170. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2010.10.002
Karimi J, Izadi R. The role of experiential avoidance and anxiety sensitivity in the prediction of mental and general health in Nursing Students. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research. 10 (4), 32-42.
Kashdan, T. B., Barrios, V., Forsyth, J. P., & Steger, M. F. (2006). Experiential avoidance as a generalized psychological vulnerability: comparisons with coping and emotion regulation strategies. Behaviour research and therapy, 44(9), 1301–1320. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2005.10.003
Kashdan, T. B., Breen, W. E., Afram, A., & Terhar, D. (2010). Experiential avoidance in idiographic, autobiographical memories: construct validity and links to social anxiety, depressive, and anger symptoms. Journal of anxiety disorders, 24(5), 528–534. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.03.010
Kashdan, T. B., & Rottenberg, J. (2010). Psychological flexibility as a fundamental aspect of health. Clinical psychology review, 30(7), 865–878. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.001
Kishton, J. M., & Widaman, K. F. (1994). Unidimensional versus domain representative parceling of questionnaire items: An empirical example. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 757–765.
Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (Fourth edition). Methodology in the social sciences. New York: The Guilford Press.
Macedo1, A., Marques, M and Pereira, A. T. (2014). Perfectionism and psychological distress: a review of the cognitive factors. IJCNMH. 1 (6), 1-10 Available at http://ijcnmh.arc-publishing.org
Lopez, J. C., Ruiz, F. J., Feder, J., Rubio, A., Suarez Aguirre, J. J., Rodriguez, J. A., & Luciano, C. (2010). The role of experiential avoidance in the performance on a high cognitive demand task. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 10(3): 475-488.
Mahoney, C. T., Segal, D. L., & Coolidge, F. L. (2015). Anxiety Sensitivity, Experiential Avoidance, and Mindfulness Among Younger and Older Adults: Age Differences in Risk Factors for Anxiety Symptoms. International journal of aging & human development, 81(4), 217–240. doi:10.1177/0091415015621309
Meade, C., & Jeanloz, R. (1991). Deep-Focus Earthquakes and Recycling of Water into the Earth's Mantle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 252(5002), 68–72. doi:10.1126/science.252.5002.68
Mehta, S., Rice, D., Janzen, S., Serrato, J., Getty, H., Shapiro, A. P.,. . . Teasell, R. W. (2016). The Long Term Role of Anxiety Sensitivity and Experiential Avoidance on Pain Intensity, Mood, and Disability among Individuals in a Specialist Pain Clinic. Pain research & management, 2016, 6954896. doi:10.1155/2016/6954896
Monestès, J.-L., Karekla, M., Jacobs, N., Michaelides, M. P., Hooper, N., Kleen, M.,. . . Hayes, S. C. (2016). Experiential Avoidance as a Common Psychological Process in European Cultures. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 1–11. doi:10.1027/1015-5759/a000327
Moroz, M., & Dunkley, D. M. (2015). Self-critical perfectionism and depressive symptoms: Low self-esteem and experiential avoidance as mediators. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 174–179. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.07.044
Nyland, Jennifer E. (2004). Dysfunctional Cognitions: Associations with Perfectionistic Thinking Utilizing the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Construct,"McNair Scholars Journal: Vol. 8: Iss. 1, Article 8.Available at: http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/mcnair/vol8/iss1/8
Olanrewaju, A. K., Ruth, A., & Kehinde, O. O. (2015). The Moderating Role of Experiential Avoidance on the Relationship of Determinants of Risky Sexual Behaviour and Attitude Among Nigerian Adolescents. Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 1(2):33-41.
Santanello, A. W., & Gardner, F. L. (2007). The Role of Experiential Avoidance in the Relationship Between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Worry. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31(3), 319–332. doi:10.1007/s10608-006-9000-6
Schmalz, J. E., & Murrell, A. R. (2010). Measuring experiential avoidance in adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 6, 198-213.
Spinhoven, P., Drost, J., Rooij, M. de, van Hemert, A. M., & Penninx, B. W. (2014). A longitudinal study of experiential avoidance in emotional disorders. Behavior therapy, 45(6), 840–850. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2014.07.001
Spinhoven, P., Drost, J., Rooij, M. de, van Hemert, A. M., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2016). Is Experiential Avoidance a Mediating, Moderating, Independent, Overlapping, or Proxy Risk Factor in the Onset, Relapse and Maintenance of Depressive Disorders? Cognitive therapy and research, 40, 150–163. doi:10.1007/s10608-015-9747-8
Szabo, M. (2011). The emotional experience associated with worrying: anxiety, depression, or stress? Anxiety, stress, and coping, 24(1), 91–105. doi:10.1080/10615801003653430
Terry- short, L. A. Owens, R. G., Salde. P. D., & Dewey, M. E. (1995). Positive and negative perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 18:663-668.
Weiner, B. A., & Carton, J. S. (2012). Avoidant coping: A mediator of maladaptive perfectionism and test anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(5), 632–636. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.12.009
Wenzlaff, R. M., & Wegner, D. M. (2000). Thought suppression. Annual review of psychology, 51, 59–91. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.59