Introduction: Social behavior is one of the most important structures that has an impact on the personality development of children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the social behavior of children in school.Method: 607 students were selected by a multistage cluster sampling method to measure the childrens’ social behavior.These selected students responded to Harter's Educational Motivation questionnaire.Results: For the data analysis, factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficients and Pearson correlations were used. The factor analysis revealed five factors to assess the scale. The criterion validity results showed that social behavior and academic motivation, academic achievement, school absences and discipline scores are not statistically significant. The socialbehavior rating scale using Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total scale, 0.90, the victim subscale, 0.72, actual social behavior, 0.69, social behavior, 0.68, antisocial behavior expose 0.75 and antisocial behavior relation. 0.76, respectively, all of which are satisfactory.Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the Persianversion of the elementary school students' social behavior questionnaire has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used as a valid tool in psychological research.