Introduction: Considering the significant contribution of self-esteem to sense of well-being, this study aimed at investigating the parenting styles and mothers’ negative schemas as predictors of self-esteem in the elementary school students in Tehran.Method: Towards this end, 1260 people )630 elementary school students and 630 mothers) were selected. These elementary school children studying at the 4th and the 5th grades in Tehran were selected using a random cluster sampling method and were asked to complete the Coopersmith self-esteem scale. Their mothers also responded to the parenting styles and Young schemas scales questionnaire. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data.Results: Results of correlation indicated that significant relation between mother's parenting styles, early maladaptive schemas and children’s self-esteem. Also results of regression analysis indicated that among parenting styles, authoritarian parenting style and among mother’s schema domains and schemas, disconnection and rejection domain, emotional deprivation and emotional inhibition schemas were the most rigorous predictors of children’s self-esteem.Conclusion: The children’ self-esteem might be highly influenced by the mothers’ parenting styles and schemas, therefore, in order to optimize children’s level of self-esteem, it will be helpful to teach the principles of the authoritative parenting style and rational beliefs to parents.