Effectiveness of Training Mindfulness on Psychological Well-being, Coping Strategy and Family Function among Women Suffering from Breast Cancer

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education of Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

10.30491/ijbs.2020.104123

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness training on psychological well-being, coping strategies, and family functioning among women with breast cancer.
Method: This study was a semi-experimental research with a pretest-posttest control group design and a three-month follow-up period. Twenty nine women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer were selected via convenience sampling method and were then randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. The Psychological Well-Being questionnaire (PWB), Family Assessment Devise (FAD), Roger's Coping Strategies questionnaire and the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) were applied to collect data. The members of the experimental group were treated using mindfulness training protocol in 6 sessions, each lasting for 60 minutes. Eventually, data were analyzed through mixed ANOVA analysis.
Results: Findings showed that training mindfulness had a significant effect on the promotion of psychological well-being, coping strategy and family function of women suffering from breast cancer (P<0.01).
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the implementation of mindfulness training in psychotherapy centers and health clinics would be beneficial and effective in managing the psychological issues concerning patients with breast cancer.

Keywords


References

1.   Penny E, Speechley V, Rosenfield M. Breast cancer answer and your fingertip. London: classic publish; 2009.

2.   Epping-Jordan JE, Compas BE, Osowiecki DM, Oppedisano G, Gerhardt C, Primo K, et al. Psychological adjustment in breast cancer: processes of emotional distress. Health Psychol. 1999;18(4):315.

3.   Ahmadi A, Ramazani R, Rezagholi T, Yavari P. Incidence pattern and spatial analysis of breast cancer in Iranian women: Geographical Information System applications. East Mediterr Health J. 2018;24(4):360–367.

4.   DeSantis C, Ma J, Bryan L, Jemal A. Breast cancer statistics, 2013. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64(1):52–62.

5.   Baider L, Andritsch E, Uziely B, Goldzweig G, Ever-Hadani P, Hofman G, et al. Effects of age on coping and psychological distress in women diagnosed with breast cancer: review of literature and analysis of two different geographical settings. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2003;46(1):5–16.

6.   Winefield HR, Gill TK, Taylor AW, Pilkington RM. Psychological well-being and psychological distress: is it necessary to measure both? Psychol Well- Theory Res Pract. 2012;2(1):3.

7.   Ryff CD. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1989;57(6):1069.

8.   Gochett CG. Psychological well-being among breast cancer survivors: Factors that influence transition from primary treatment to early survivorship. 2015;

9.   Dumalaon-Canaria JA, Prichard I, Hutchinson AD, Wilson C. Fear of cancer recurrence and psychological well-being in women with breast cancer: The role of causal cancer attributions and optimism. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2018;27(1):e12579.

10. Costanzo ES, Stawski RS, Ryff CD, Coe CL, Almeida DM. Cancer survivors’ responses to daily stressors: Implications for quality of life. Health Psychol. 2012;31(3):360.

11. Franks HM, Roesch SC. Appraisals and coping in people living with cancer: a meta-analysis. Psychooncology. 2006;15(12):1027–1037.

12. Farajzadegan Z, Koosha P, Sufi GJ, Keshvari M. The relationship between family function and women’s well-being. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2013;18(1):9.

13. Folkman S, Lazarus RS. An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. J Health Soc Behav. 1980;219–239.

14. Huang S, Huang J, Wang G, Huang M, Yang C, Luo X. Relationship between recurrence fear and medical coping modes in cancer patients. Chin J Pract Nurs. 2018;34(27):2146–2150.

15. Northouse LL, Mood D, Kershaw T, Schafenacker A, Mellon S, Walker J, et al. Quality of life of women with recurrent breast cancer and their family members. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(19):4050–4064.

16. Blanchard CG. The crisis of cancer: psychological impact on family caregivers. Oncology. 1997;11(2).

17. Kaviani A, Mehrdad N, Yunesian M, Shakiba B, Ebrahimi M, Majidzadeh K, et al. Psychosocial care for breast cancer: physiciaps’ perspective. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2010;3(1):23–27.

18. Shahvaroughi-Farahani N, Eskandari H, Hasan-Larijani M, Borjali A, Rajabi M, Kaveh V. A Qualitative Examination of Attachment Styles in Women with Advanced Cancer Receiving Palliative Care. Int J Behav Sci. 2019;13(1):1–7.

19. Cifu G, Power MC, Shomstein S, Arem H. Mindfulness-based interventions and cognitive function among breast cancer survivors: a systematic review. BMC Cancer. 2018;18(1):1163.

20. Lengacher CA, Reich RR, Ramesar S, Alinat CB, Moscoso M, Cousin L, et al. Feasibility of the mobile mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer (mMBSR (BC)) program for symptom improvement among breast cancer survivors. Psychooncology. 2018;27(2):524–531.

21. Rosen KD, Paniagua SM, Kazanis W, Jones S, Potter JS. Quality of life among women diagnosed with breast Cancer: A randomized waitlist controlled trial of commercially available mobile app-delivered mindfulness training. Psychooncology. 2018;27(8):2023–2030.

22. Johannsen M, O’connor M, O’toole MS, Jensen AB, Zachariae R. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and persistent pain in women treated for primary breast cancer. Clin J Pain. 2018;34(1):59–67.

23. Brown KW, Ryan RM. The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003;84(4):822.

24. Brown KW, Ryan RM, Creswell JD. Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychol Inq. 2007;18(4):211–237.

25. Ryff CD, Keyes CLM. The structure of psychological well-being revisited. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1995;69(4):719.

26. Khanjani M, Shahidi S, Fathabadi J, Mazaheri M, Shokri O. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Ryff’s scale of Psychological well-being, short form (18-item) among male and female students. Thoughts Behav Clin Psychol. 2014;8(32):27–36.

27. Bayani AA, Mohammad Koochekya A, Bayani A. Reliability and validity of Ryff’s psychological well-being scales. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol. 2008;14(2):146–151.

28. Kafka GJ, Kozma A. The construct validity of Ryff’s scales of psychological well-being (SPWB) and their relationship to measures of subjective well-being. Soc Indic Res. 2002;57(2):171–190.

29. Miller IW, Ryan CE, Keitner GI, Bishop DS, Epstein NB. The McMaster approach to families: Theory, assessment, treatment and research. J Fam Ther. 2000;22(2):168–189.

30. Zadeh mohammad A, Malekkhosravi G. Preliminary Investigation of Psychometric Properties and Validation of Family Functioning Scale. J Fam Res. 2007;2(1):69–89.

31. Roger D, Jarvis G, Najarian B. Detachment and coping: The construction and validation of a new scale for measuring coping strategies. Personal Individ Differ. 1993;15(6):619–626.

32. Riddle DL, Jensen MP. Construct and criterion-based validity of brief pain coping scales in persons with chronic knee osteoarthritis pain. Pain Med. 2013;14(2):265–275.

33. Jensen IB, Linton SJ. Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ): Reliability of the Swedish version of the CSQ. Cogn Behav Ther. 1993;22(3–4):139–145.

34. Ghorbani N, Watson PJ, Weathington BL. Mindfulness in Iran and the United States: Cross-cultural structural complexity and parallel relationships with psychological adjustment. Curr Psychol. 2009;28(4):211.

35. Davis DM, Hayes JA. What are the benefits of mindfulness? A practice review of psychotherapy-related research. Psychotherapy. 2011;48(2):198.

36. Castanhel FD, Liberali R. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on breast cancer symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis. Einstein São Paulo. 2018;16(4).

37. Lykins EL. Psychological functioning in a sample of long-term practitioners of mindfulness meditation. J Cogn Psychother. 2009;23(3):226.

38. Hayes AM, Beevers CG, Feldman GC, Laurenceau J-P, Perlman C. Avoidance and processing as predictors of symptom change and positive growth in an integrative therapy for depression. Int J Behav Med. 2005;12(2):111.

39. Kabat-Zinn J. Full catastrophe living: The program of the stress reduction clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. New York: Delta; 1990.

40. Shapiro SL, Astin JA, Bishop SR, Cordova M. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for health care professionals: results from a randomized trial. Int J Stress Manag. 2005;12(2):164.

41. Kahn JH, Wei M, Su JC, Han S, Strojewska A. Distress disclosure and psychological functioning among Taiwanese nationals and European Americans: The moderating roles of mindfulness and nationality. J Couns Psychol. 2017;64(3):292.

42. Luecken LJ, Compas BE. Stress, coping, and immune function in breast cancer. Ann Behav Med. 2002;24(4):336–344.

43. Malik AA, Kiran T. Psychological problems in breast cancer patients: A review. Chemotherapy. 2013;2(2):1–6.

44. Eyre HJ. Informed Decisions: ; The Complete Book Of Cancer Diagnosis, Treatment, And Recovery. 2002.

45. Kayser K, Watson LE, Andrade JT. Cancer as a" we-disease": Examining the process of coping from a relational perspective. Fam Syst Health. 2007;25(4):404.