Comparing the Effectiveness of Teaching Mirror Neuron Strategies and Brain Executive Function on the Function of the Frontal Lobe of Boys with Conduct Disorder

Document Type : Original Article


1 Doctoral Student of Counseling at Borujerd Azad University, Borujerd, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the training strategies of executive functions of the brain and mirror neurons on the function of the frontal lobe in boys with behavioral disorders.
Method: In this research, a quasi-experimental method of repeated measurement (pre-test, post-test and follow-up) was used with a control group. The statistical population included 9-12-year-old students with behavioral disorders in Tehran. The sample size included 45 boys with behavioral disorders which were selected from the male students of the 7th district of education in Tehran and were divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The tools used in this study included the Stroop test, the Children's Morbid Symptoms Questionnaire (Parent Form, 1991), and the Behavior Disorder Diagnosis Questionnaire. The data was analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance with SPSS 22 software.
Results: The intervention of educational strategies of executive functions had a positive and significant effect on the performance of the frontal lobe and its components, including cognitive flexibility and pre-test inhibitory response components in the post-test and follow-up phases, but it did not affect the selective attention component. Also, teaching mirror neuron strategies had a positive and significant effect on the function of the frontal lobe and its components.
Conclusion: The interventions of both strategies have been effective in improving frontal function, but mirror neuron strategies have had a more effective role on the frontal function and its components.


  1. Weiss R. Child and Adolescent Psychopathology: Arasbaran publish; 2018.(persian)
  2. Hawkins KM, Smolke CD. Production of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature chemical biology. 2008;4(9):564-73.
  3. Colb B. Wishaw Y. Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology. Translated by Pourahmad A, Agah H. Mansouri Rad M. 1396Third edition. Honorable Publications (Persian). (persian)
  4. Wormhoudt R, Savelsbergh GJ, Teunissen JW, Davids K. The athletic skills model: optimizing talent development through movement education: Routledge; 2017.
  5. Nigg JT. Attention and impulsivity. Developmental psychopathology. 2016:1-56. DOI:
  6. Akbarvand T. Pirkhaefi A -ATP. The Effectiveness of Psychological Nerve Rehabilitation Pattern Model Sensory Integration on Improving the Brain Functions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Neuropsychology. 2015.
  7. Parsegian A, Glen Jr WB, Lavin A, See RE. Methamphetamine self-administration produces attentional set-shifting deficits and alters prefrontal cortical neurophysiology in rats. Biological psychiatry. 2011;69(3):253-9. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e328365a2fa
  8. Yarmand H, Ashayeri H, Golfam A, Ameri H. The Effect of Mirror Neurons Stimulation on Development of Grammatical Understanding in 5-8 Year, Female, Persian, Autistic Children. Neuropsychology. 2016;2(5):9-24(persian).
  9. Schmidt RA, Lee TD, Winstein C, Wulf G, Zelaznik HN. Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis: Human kinetics; 2018.
  10. Darvizeh Z B. A Study of the Relationship between Empathy of Mothers and Girls of High School Students and Behavioral Disorders Alzahra University. 2019;3:22-35. 10.22051/JWSPS.2003.1320, (Persian).
  11. Fasnaghari M KZ. The effectiveness of an integrated intervention of modified theory of mind and behavior therapy on reducing antisocial traits in children with conduct disorder. Alzahra University. 2019;3:11-24. (Persian)
  12. Acharya S, Shukla S. Mirror neurons: Enigma of the metaphysical modular brain. Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine. 2012;3(2):118. doi: 10.4103/0976-9668.92318
  13. Heyes C. Where do mirror neurons come from? Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2010;34(4):575-83.
  14. Hill AT, Fitzgibbon BM, Arnold SL, Rinehart NJ, Fitzgerald PB, Enticott PG. Modulation of putative mirror neuron activity by both positively and negatively valenced affective stimuli: a TMS study. Behavioural brain research. 2013;249:116-23. .
  15. Caggiano V, Fleischer F, Pomper JK, Giese MA, Thier P. Mirror neurons in monkey premotor area F5 show tuning for critical features of visual causality perception. Current Biology. 2016;26(22):3077-82.
  16. Kholusi Z, Ashayeri H, Ghodrati S. The Effective of Rhythmic melodic stimuli and Play Education on Mirror Neurons and Working Memory of 4-7-Year-Old ADHD Childrens. Neuropsychology. 2018;4(14):129-44. (Persian) https:// doi. 10.30473/CLPSY.2019.42194.1362
  17. R Aguinaga A, Lopez Ramire M, Alanis Garza A, Baltazar R, M Zamudio V. Emotional analysis thru EEG signals, to monitor high performance athletes. InImpact: The Journal of Innovation Impact. 2016;6(1):16. . DOI:
  18. Shahrivari K; Nategh I AAYHAA. Construction and standardization of a behavioral disorder grading scale. Principles of Mental Health Journal. 2010;3:574-83. (Persian)
  19. Ghadiri F JA, Ashayeri H, Ghazi Tabatabai M. . Executive Function Disorders in Schizophrenic-Obsessive-compulsive Patients. Scientific-Progrative. 2006;8:3-12.
  20. Mahmoudi Eshkaftki F, Ghazanfari A, Solati S. Effectiveness of social and communication skills training using cognitive-behavioral approach on psychological well-being and happiness of female students with martyred and veteran parents in Shahrekord, Iran, governmental universities. Iranian Journal of War and Public Health. 2020;12(2):85-91. URL:
  21. Taylor E, Döpfner M, Sergeant J, Asherson P, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, et al. European clinical guidelines for hyperkinetic disorder–first upgrade. European child & adolescent psychiatry. 2004;13(1):i7-i30. DOI
  22. Arnsten AF, Rubia K. Neurobiological circuits regulating attention, cognitive control, motivation, and emotion: disruptions in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2012;51(4):356-67. .
  23. Fairchild G, Hagan CC, Walsh ND, Passamonti L, Calder AJ, Goodyer IM. Brain structure abnormalities in adolescent girls with conduct disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2013;54(1):86-95.
  24. Sh AJHJM. The effect of cognitive and emotional processing on the function of the mirror neuron system in people with ADHD: Kharazmi; 2017.(persian)