An Examination into the Role of English Teachers’ Stroking Behavior in their Effectiveness from the Iranian Learners’ Perspectives

Document Type : Original Article


Department of English, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran



Introduction: The quality of teacher-learner relationship plays such an important role in learners’ academic lives that finding the factors helping teacher effectiveness seems to be investigated worthwhile. Stroke, as a relatively new concept in education, is one of these factors helping teacher effectiveness. This paper, thus, aimed to find whether the amount and the kind of stroke learners receive in their class might have any role in how they perceive their teachers to be effective.
Method: Through convenience sampling, 400 male and female English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners from both formal and informal educational settings of the Khorasan Razavi province were selected to whom two sets of questionnaires, Characteristics of Effective English Language Teachers Scale and Student Stroke Scale were administrated. In this survey study, structural equation modeling and multiple regression analysis were then used to examine the possible relationships among the study variables.
Results: The regression analyses of the results revealed a positive relationship between stroke and teacher effectiveness. In addition, among the four subscales of stroke, valuing and verbal stroke were found to be the significant predictors of teacher effectiveness. These findings were then discussed in the light of previous research.
Conclusion: Due to the newness of the research in this area and the limitations as discussed for the current study, future researchers were invited to study the interrelationships of stroke and some other variables in teacher effectiveness since such studies could better reveal the nature of stroking behaviors in producing healthy teacher-learner bonds in educational settings.


1. Fullan M. The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College. (2001).
2. Hargreaves A, Fullan M G. Understanding teacher development. London: Cassell. (1992).
3. Swandee A. Students’ perception of university instructors’ effective teaching characteristics. SLLT Journal. (1995); 5, 6- 22.
4.  Schutz  P A, Pekrun R.. Emotion in education. San Diego, California: Academic. (2007)
5. Peng  J  E, Woodrow  L.. Willingness to communicate in English: A model in the Chinese EFL classroom context. Language Learning. (2010); 60(4), 834-876.
6.  Pishghadam R, Khajavy G H. Development and validation of the Student Stroke Scale and examining its relation with academic motivation. Studies in Educational Evaluation. (2014); 43, 109-114.
7. Shirai S. How transactional analysis can be used in terminal care. International Congress Series. (2006); 1287, 179-184.
 8.  Anderson L W. Introducing teacher effectiveness. Paris: UNESCO, IIEP. . (2004)
9.  Black R S, Howard-Jones A. Reflections on best and worst teachers: An experiential perspective of teaching. Journal of Research and Development in Education. (2000); 34(1), 1-13.
10.  Brosh H. Perceived characteristics of the effective language teacher. Foreign Language Annals. . (1996); 29, 38-125.
11. Gadzella B M. A comparison of students’ perception of an ideal professor. Paper presented at Southwestern Psychological Association Convention, Austin, Texas. . (1997, April 17).
12. Lowman J. . Characteristics of exemplary teachers. New Direction for Teaching and Learning. (1996); 65, 33-40.
13. Swank PR, Taylor R D, Brady M P, Freiberg H J. Sensitivity of classroom observation systems: Measuring teacher effectiveness. The Journal of Experimental Education. (1989); 57(2), 171-186.
14. Alder N I,Moulton M R. The eye of the beholder: Middle schoolers talk about caring. Schools in the Middle. (1998);21(3), 15-32.
15. O’Connor  K E. “You choose to care”: Teachers, emotions and professional identity. Teaching and teacher Education. (2008); 24(1), 117-126.
16. Rogers D, Webb J. The ethic of caring in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education. . (1991); 42(3), 173-181.
17. Anderson J F. Teacher immediacy as a predictor of teaching effectiveness. In Communication Yearbook 3 (pp. 543-559).  London, UK: Transaction Publishers. (1979)
18. Anderson  J  F, Norton RW, Nussbaum J F.. Three investigations exploring relationships between perceived teacher communication behaviors and student learning. Communication Education. (1981); 30(4), 377-392.
19. Mehrabian  A.. Some referents and measures of nonverbal behavior. Behavior Research Methods. (1967);  1(6), 203-207.
20. Elizabeth C L M, May C M H, Chee P K.. Building a model to define the concept of teacher success in Hong Kong. Teaching and Teacher Education. (2008); 24(3), 623-634.
21. Goldstein  L S.. The relational zone: The role of caring relationships in co-construction of mind. American Educational Research Journa. (1999) ;  36(3), 647-673.
22. Goldstein  L S, Lake V E. . Love, love, and more love for children: Exploring preservice teachers' understanding of caring. Teaching and Teacher Education. (2000); 16(8), 861-872.
23. BerneE.. Game people play. New York: Grove Press. (1988)
24. Sanders W L, Rivers J C.. Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement (Research Progress Report). Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Value- Added Research and Assessment Center. (1996)
25. Irajzad F Pishghadam R, Shahriari H.. Examining the stroking behavior of English, Persian, and Arabic school teachers in Iran; A mixes-methods study. International Journal of Instruction. (2016); 10(1), 219-236.
 26. Noorbakhsh Z, Pishghadam R, Saboori F.. Stroke and gender identity in teacher success: from learners’ viewpoints. Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences. (2018);41(1), 39-48.  
27. Yazdanpour H.. Constructing and validating a teacher stroke scale and examining its relationship with burnout Unpublished Master thesis). Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (2015).
28. Pishghadam R, Naji Meidani  E , Khajavy G  H.. Language teachers' conceptions of intelligence and their roles in teacher care and teacher feedback. Australian Journal of Teacher Education. (2015); 40(1), 60.
 29. Barrow G, Newton T. (Eds.).. Educational transactional analysis: An international guide to theory and practice. London, UK: Routledge(2015).
30. Stewart  I, Joines V.. TA today: A new introduction to transactional analysis. Nottingham: Lifespace. (1987).
31. Wachtel  P L.. Transference, schema, and assimilation: The relevance of Piaget to the psychoanalytic theory of transference. Annual Psychoanalysis. (1980); 8, 59-76.
32. Gorham  J, Zakahi  W R.. A comparison of teacher and student perceptions of immediacy and learning:  
     Monitoring process and product. Communication Education. (1990); 39(4), 354-368.
33. Christophel DM.. The relationships among teacher immediacy behaviors, student motivation, and learning. Communication Education. (1990); 39(4), 323-340.
34. Gorham J.. The relationship between verbal teacher immediacy behaviors and student learning. Communication Education. (1988) 37(1), 40-53.
 35. Carrell  LJ, Menzel K E.. Variations in learning, motivation, and perceived immediacy between live and distance education classrooms. Communication Education. (2001); 50(3), 230-240.
36. Kearney P, Plax T G, Smith, V R, Sorensen  G.. Effects of teacher immediacy and resistance to on‐task demands. Communication Education. (1988) 37(1), 54-67.
37. Ozmen  K S.. Perception of nonverbal immediacy effective teaching among students and teachers: A study across cultural extremes. International Online Journal of Educational  Sciences. (2011);  3(3), 865-881.
38. Plax T G, Kearney P , McCroskey J C, Richmond V P.. Power in the classroom: Verbal control strategies, nonverbal immediacy and affective learning. Communication Education. (1986);  35(1), 43-55.
39. Newell S, Jeffery  D.. Behavior management in the classroom: A transactional analysis approach. London : Routledge. (2002)
40. Abassy Delvand S, Mashhadi Heidar DA survey on the efficiency of ESP teachers in Iranian Universities. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Research. (2015).; 3 (9, 59-66.
41. Wichadee S. Characteristics of effective English language teachers: The perspectives of Bangkok University students. Education. (2008); 6, 1-7.
42. ParkG, Lee H. Characteristics of effective teachers perceived by high school teachers and students in Korea. Asia Pacific Education Review. (2006); 7(2), 236-248.
43. Ary D, Jacobs L C, Irvine C KS, Walker D.. Introduction to research in education.  London, UK: Cengage Learning. (2013).
44. Weimer M.. Defining teaching effectiveness. Baltimore, Maryland. (2013, February 4th) Retrieved from 
45. Feldman K A.. Effective college teaching from the students' and faculty's view: Matched or mismatched priorities? Research in Higher Education. (1988); 28(4), 291-329.
46. Bieg S, Rickelman R J, Jones J P, Mittag W. The role of teachers’ care and self-determined motivation in working with students in Germany and the United States. International Journal of Educational Research. (2013); 60, 27-37.
47. Foster KC.. The transformative potential of teacher care as described by students in a higher education access initiative. Education and Urban Society. (2008); 41(1), 104-126.
 48. Cohen G L, Steele C M. . A barrier of mistrust: How negative     stereotypes affect cross-race mentoring. In J. Anderson (Ed.), Improving        academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education (pp. 310-322).San Diego: Academic Press. (2002).
49. WareF.. Warm demander pedagogy: Culturally responsive teaching that supports a culture of achievement for African American students. Urban Education. (2006); 41(4), 427-456.
50. Khajavy  G H , Ghonsooly  B, Hosseini Fatemi  A, Choi  C W.. Willingness to communicate in English: A microsystem model in the Iranian EFL classroom context. TESOL Quarterly. (2014);50(1), 154-180.
51. Clark D.. Teacher evaluation: A review of the literature with implications for educators. (Unpublished Seminar Paper), California State University at Long Beach. (1993).
52. Rahimi  M, Karkami F H.. The role of teachers’ classroom discipline in their teaching effectiveness and students’ language learning motivation and achievement: A path method. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research. (2015);  3(1), 57-82.
53.Guvendir E.. The role of non-verbal behavior of teachers in providing students corrective feedback and  their   consequences. Sino-US English Teaching. (2011);  8(9), 577-591.
54. Robinson P. Individual differences and instructed language learning. John Benjamins B. V. (2002)