Labor As The Mediator for the Structural Relationship Between Emotional job Demands and Teaching Satisfaction and Performance: the Moderator Role Of Emotional Intelligence


1 PhD Student, Semnan University, Iran

2 Associate professor, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Semnan University, Iran

3 Assistant professor, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Semnan University, Iran


AbstractIntroduction: The aim of the present study was to test the structural model of emotional job demands, teaching satisfaction and the performance of teachers with the mediatory role of emotional labor and the moderator role of emotional intelligence.Method: The participants were 432 (227 first set and 205 second set) teachers of Qazvin which were chosen through stratified random sampling. All of them completed the emotional labor and teaching satisfaction questionnaire of Yin and the performance questionnaire of Paterson. Data were tested through the modeling of structural equations. Findings showed that the measurement model for the emotional labor is valid with three markers of surface action, deep action and natural expression of emotion.Results: Teachers’ understanding of emotional job demands had a direct structural effect on the application of emotional labor strategies by the teachers (GA= -0.28, t = -3.02, P<0.01). Teachers’ understanding of emotional job demands had an indirect effect on the teaching satisfaction through the strategies of emotional labor (Sobel test =3.43, p<0.001). Also, teachers’ understanding of emotional job demands had an indirect effect on teachers’ performance with the mediator role of emotional labor strategies (Sobel test= 3.14, p<0.001). The application of the emotional labor strategies had a direct effect on the teaching satisfaction (BE= -1.09, t= -19.01, P< 0.001) and teachers’ performance (BE= -1.17, t= -5.08, P<0.01). Teaching satisfaction had a direct effect on teachers’ performance (BE= -0.39, t=2.38, P<0.01).Conclusion: Emotional intelligence significantly moderated the structural relationship between teachers’ understanding of emotional job demands, the use of emotional labor strategies, teaching satisfaction and performance. This is while, in this model the measurement of emotional labor did not play a moderator role. Emotional job demands and emotional labor strategies were effective antecedents for performance and teaching satisfaction of teachers, especially teachers with high emotional intelligence. Job satisfaction and performance of the teachers should be studied considering the individual factors such as the emotional job demands, emotional labor strategies and the role that emotional intelligence plays.  


  1. Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandey, A. (2002). Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of 'people work'. Journal of vocational Behavior, 60, 17-39.
  2. Brotheridge, C.M.(2006). The role of emotional intelligence and other individual difference variables in predicting emotional labor relative to situational demands. Psicothema, 18, 139-144.
  3. Bolton, S. C. (2005). Emotion management in the workplace. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
  4. Cukur, C.S. (2009). The development of the teacher emotional labor scale: validity and Reliability. Educational sciences: theory & practice, 9(2), 559-574.
  5. Cheung, F., Tang, C. S. K, Tang, S. )2011). Psychological capital as a moderator between emotional labor, burnout, and job satisfaction among school teachers in China. International Journal Stress Management, 18(4), 348-71.
  6. De Jonge, J., Le Blanc, P. M., Peeters, M. C. W., & Noordam, H. (2008). Emotional job demands and the role of matching job resources: A cross-sectional survey study among health care workers. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45, 1460-1469.
  7. Delavar, A. (2005). “Research methodology in psychology and educational sciences”, 4th edition, Tehran, Virayesh Press.
  8. Emmons, R.A.& Colby, P.M. (1995). Emotional conflict and well being, Ration to perceived Availability, Daily Utilization and observer Reports of Social support. Journal of personality and social psychology, 65(5), 947-959.
  9. Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotional regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 95-110.
  10. Gosserand, R. H. (2003). "An examination of individual and organizational factors related to emotional labor". Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Louisiana State University.
  11. Guo. W. K. (2014). The Relationship between College Teachers ‘Emotional work Policy. Emotional Intelligence and Job Burnout. The Guide of Science & Education, 11. 76-79.
  12. Hoch schild, A.R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California press.
  13. Hargreaves, A. (1998). The emotional practice of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 14, 835-854.
  14. Ho, C. L., & Au, W. T. (2006). Teaching satisfaction scale: Measuring job satisfaction of teachers. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 172-185.
  15. Hirschfeld, R. R. (2000). Does revising the intrinsic and extrinsic subscales of the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire short form make a difference? Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 255-270.
  16. Isenbarger, L., & Zembylas, M. (2006). The emotional labor of caring in teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 120-134.
  17. Karim, J., & weisz, R. (2011). Emotional intelligence as a moderator of affectivity /emotional labor and emotional labor/ psychological distress relationships. Psychological studies, 56, 348-359.
  18. Kerlinjer, F. N. (1997). “The basics of research in behavior sciences” (second edition), translated by Sharifi, H. P. and Najafi Zand, J. Tehran, Avaye Nour Press.
  19. Liu, W. L., Chen, R., Lou, X. M., Liu, X, & Liu, Y. L. (2013). Relationship between Primary and Middle School Teachers’ Emotional Work Strategies and Occupational Well-Being: On Moderating Effects of Psychological Capital. Journal of Southwest China Normal University: Natural Science Edition, 38, 152-157.
  20. Lee, J. ok, C, Hwang, J. (2016). An emotional labor perspective on the relationship between customer orientation and job satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 54، 139-150.
  21. Liu, Y., Perrewe, P. L., Hochwarter, W. A., & Kachmar, C. J. (2004). Dispositional antecedents and consequences of emotional labor at work. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 10(4), 12- 25.
  22. Liu, Y. C. (2012). Discussion on Teachers ‘Emotional Display Rules. Journal of Zhejiang Normal University: Social Sciences, 63, 6-11.
  23. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 197-215.
  24. Mikolajczak, M., Menil, C., & Luminet, O. (2007). Explaining the protective effect of trait emotional intelligence regarding occupational stress: Exploration of emotional labor processes. Journal of Research in personality, 41, 1107-1117.
  25. Mioler, R. (1996). “The basics of structural equations modeling”, translated by Tale Passand, S. (2013), Semnan University.
  26. Naring, G., vlerick, P., & van de ven, B. (2012). Emotion work and emotional exhaustion in teachers: The job and individual perspective. Educational Studies, 38, 63-72.
  27. Rogelberg SG, Reiter-palman R. (2007). The Encyclopedia of Industrial and organizational psychology. Sage.
  28. Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. (1991). Emotional contrast strategies as means of social influence: Lessons from criminal interrogators and bill collectors. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 749-775.
  29. Sarmad, Z. (1999). “Regulating and mediatory variables: conceptual and strategic distinctions”. Psychiatrist researches, 5 (3,4) 10.
  30. Taris, T. W., & Schreurs, P. J. G. (2009). Explaining worker strain and learning: How important are emotional job demands?. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 22, 245-262.
  31. Wharton, A. S. (1993). "The affective consequences of service work Managing emotions on the job. Work and Occupations, 20, 205-232.
  32. Winograd, K. (2003). The functions of teacher emotions: The Good, The bad, and ugly. Teachers College Record, 105, 1641-73.
  33. Xu, Y. X. (2012). Studies on Emotional Labor Strategy of Secondary School Teachers and Its Relationship with Teaching Efficacy and Job Burnout, Master’s Thesis, Wuhan: Hubei University.
  34. Yin, H. B., Lee, J. C. K., Jin, Y. L., & Zhang, Z-H. (2013). Exploring the Relationship among Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence. Emotional Labor Strategies and Teaching Satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 35, 137-145.
  35. Yin, H. B. (2015). The effect of teachers' emotional labor on teaching satisfaction: moderation of emotional labor on teaching satisfaction: moderation of emotional intelligence. Teachers and teaching: theory and practice. 21(7), 789-810.
  36. Yin, H., & Lee, J. C. K. (2012). Be passionate, but be rational as well: Emotional rules for Chinese teachers' work. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 56-65.
  37. Ye, M, Chen, Ye. (2015). A literature Review on Teachers Emotional labor. Creative Education. 6, 2232-2240.
  38. Yang, L., & Li, M. J. (2009). The Relationship among Emotion Work Strategies, Characters and Job Satisfaction in Primary and Middle School Teachers. Psychological Development and Education, 3, 89-100.
  39. Zhang, X. Q. (2013). To Analyze Emotional Labor of University Teachers. Journal of Tai Yuan Urban Vocational College, 9. 120-122.
  40. Zhang, Q., & Zhu, W. (2008). Exploring emotion in teaching: Emotional labor, burnout, and satisfaction in Chinese higher education. Communication Education, 57, 105-122.
  41. Zembylas, M. (2003). Emotions and teacher identity: A post structural perspective. Teachers and Teaching Theory and Practice, 9, 213-23