Development and Validation of the Academic Mindfulness Questionnaire in Iranian Students (AMQ-5): The Formation of a Concept

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Psychology, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran



Introduction: Although different tools have been designed to measure mindfulness, none has comprehensively examined academic mindfulness. Therefore, the present study aimed to build a reliable and valid tool for academic mindfulness measurement in students.
Method: The research was a descriptive-correlational study and a validation of the test. Participants included 420 students of Bu-Ali Sina University in the academic year of 2022-2023, selected by multistage cluster random sampling method and completed the Academic Mindfulness Questionnaire (AMQ-5), Fear of Self-compassion Scale, and Academic Engagement Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.
Results: Examination of the data by exploratory factor analysis showed that all 20 items had acceptable factor loads and revealed five factors (self-compassion, accepting without judgment, presence in the moment, performing tasks with awareness, and listening with full attention). Moreover, according to the confirmatory factor analysis, the questionnaire had an acceptable fit (RMSEA=0.047, ­ AGFI=0.91, NFI=0.96, CFI=0.98). The findings showed that academic mindfulness was significantly correlated with fear of self-compassion and academic engagement. Moreover, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.89.
Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that the academic mindfulness questionnaire has a good validity and reliability and can effectively measure academic mindfulness in the five factors mentioned.


  1. . Baer RA. Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical psychology: Science and practice. 2003;10(2):125-43.

    1. Egan H, O’hara M, Cook A, Mantzios M. Mindfulness, self-compassion, resiliency and wellbeing in higher education: a recipe to increase academic performance. Journal of Further and Higher Education. 2022;46(3):301-11.
    2. Vorontsova-Wenger O, Ghisletta P, Ababkov V, Barisnikov K. Relationship between mindfulness, psychopathological symptoms, and academic performance in university students. Psychological reports. 2021;124(2):459-78.
    3. Lu S, Huang C-C, Rios J. Mindfulness and academic performance: An example of migrant children in China. Children and Youth Services Review. 2017;82:53-9.
    4. Miralles-Armenteros S, Chiva-Gómez R, Rodríguez-Sánchez A, Barghouti Z. Mindfulness and academic performance: The role of compassion and engagement. Innovations in Education and Teaching International. 2021;58(1):3-13.
    5. Bishop SR. What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosomatic medicine. 2002;64(1):71-83.
    6. Martin JR. Mindfulness: A proposed common factor. Journal of Psychotherapy integration. 1997;7:291-312.
    7. Hoy WK, Gage CQ, Tarter CJ. School mindfulness and faculty trust: Necessary conditions for each other? Educational administration quarterly. 2006;42(2):236-55.
    8. Kabat-Zinn J. Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion; 1994.
    9. Duncan LG, Coatsworth JD, Greenberg MT. A model of mindful parenting: Implications for parent–child relationships and prevention research. Clinical child and family psychology review. 2009;12:255-70.
    10. Walach H, Buchheld N, Buttenmüller V, Kleinknecht N, Schmidt S. Measuring mindfulness—the Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI). Personality and individual differences. 2006;40(8):1543-55.
    11. Felver JC, Doerner E, Jones J, Kaye NC, Merrell KW. Mindfulness in school psychology: Applications for intervention and professional practice. Psychology in the Schools. 2013;50(6):531-47.
    12. Brown KW, Ryan RM. The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology. 2003;84(4):822-48.
    13. Baer RA, Smith GT, Hopkins J, Krietemeyer J, Toney L. Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment. 2006;13(1):27-45.
    14. Kabat-Zinn J. Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2003;10(2):144-56.
    15. Goldstein J, Kornfield J. Seeking the heart of wisdom: The path of insight mediation. Boston: Shambhala; 2001.
    16. Safer DL, Telch CF, Chen EY. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Binge Eating and Bulimia. New York: Guilford Press; 2009.
    17. Hyland T. Mindfulness and Learning: Celebrating the Affective Dimension of Education. Dordrecht: Springer; 2011.
    18. ­­Langer EJ. A mindful education. Educational Psychologist. 1993;28(1):43-50.
    19. Bogels SM, Lehtonen A, Restifo K. Mindful parenting in mental health care. Mindfulness. 2010;1:107-20.
    20. Bogels SM, Restifo K. Mindful parenting: A guide for mental health practitioners. New York: Springer; 2014.
    21. Neff KD. The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and identity. 2003;2(3):223-50.
    22. Barnard LK, Curry JF. Self-compassion: Conceptualizations, correlates, & interventions. Review of general psychology. 2011;15(4):289-303.
    23. Baer RA, Smith GT, Allen KB. Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment. 2004;11(3):191-206.
    24. Baer RA, Smith GT, Lykins E, Button D, Krietemeyer J, Sauer S, et al. Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment. 2008;15(3):329-42.
    25. Neff KD, Vonk R. Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: Two different ways of relating to oneself. Journal of personality. 2009;77(1):23-50.
    26. Neff K. Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and identity. 2003;2(2):85-101.
    27. Gilbert P. Introducing compassion-focused therapy. Advances in psychiatric treatment. 2009;15(3):199-208.
    28. Zou T, Wu C, Fan X. The clinical value, principle, and basic practical technique of mindfulness intervention. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. 2016;28(3):121-30.
    29. Albert J, Whitley J, Klan A. Exploring Public Perception of Mindfulness in Canadian Schools: A News Media Content Analysis. Brock Education Journal. 2023;32(1):59-82.
    30. Woods H, Proeve M. Relationships of mindfulness, self-compassion, and meditation experience with shame-proneness. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2014;28(1):20-33.
    31. Brown KW, Ryan RM, Creswell JD. Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological inquiry. 2007;18(4):211-37.
    32. Brown KW, West AM, Loverich TM, Biegel GM. Assessing adolescent mindfulness: validation of an adapted Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in adolescent normative and psychiatric populations. Psychological assessment. 2011;23(4):1023-33.
    33. Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology. 1975;28(4):563-75.
    34. Reeve J. How students create motivationally supportive learning environments for themselves: The concept of agentic engagement. Journal of educational psychology. 2013;105(3):579-95.
    35. Reeve J, Tseng C-M. Agency as a fourth aspect of students’ engagement during learning activities. Contemporary educational psychology. 2011;36(4):257-67.
    36. Ramazani M, Khamesan A. Psychometric characteristics of Reeve’s academic engagement questionnaire 2013: with the introduction of the Agentic Engagement. Quarterly of Educational Measurement. 2017;8(29):185-204.
    37. Gilbert P, McEwan K, Matos M, Rivis A. Fears of compassion: Development of three self-report measures. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, research and practice. 2011;84(3):239-55.
    38. Malekpour F, Bassaknejad S. The Relationship Between Fear of Self-Compassion and Fear of Happiness with Binge Eating Disorder through the Mediation of Positive and Negative Affect in Students. Journal of Applied Psychological Research. 2020;11(1):101-15.

    40. Gilbert P, McEwan K, Gibbons L, Chotai S, Duarte J, Matos M. Fears of compassion and happiness in relation to alexithymia, mindfulness, and self-criticism. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, research and practice. 2012;85(4):374-90.