The Effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training on Negative Emotions and Mental Health in Mothers of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Psychology, Torbat-e Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e Jam, Iran


Introduction: Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) have deep effects on mothers' negative emotions and mental health due to problems such as restlessness, lack of attention and impulsivity. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of emotion regulation training on negative emotions and mental health in the mothers of children with ODD.
Method: This semi-experimental study was carried out on mothers suffering from ODD referred to the education and training clinics of Mashhad, 2020. To do so, 40 people were selected by purposive sampling and were randomly placed in two experimental and control groups. Data were collected using the children's oppositional defiant disorder scale Homersen (2006), the Watson, Clark Wetelgen (1988) negative affect scale, and the Goldberg and Hiller mental health scale (1979). For the experimental group, emotion regulation training was held in eight sessions of 90 minutes; however the control group did not receive any intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS-21 software, and the covariance analysis method.
Results: Findings revealed that emotion regulation training can improve mental health and its components such as excessive support, excessive negligence, rejection and acceptance in the mothers of children with ODD; while the emotion regulation training decreased negative emotion in mothers (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Emotion regulation training with increasing knowledge and flexibility of mothers of children with ODD led to improvement of mental health and reduction of negative emotions.


  1. Ghosh A, Ray A, Basu A. Oppositional defiant disorder: current insight. Psychology research and behavior management. 2017:353-67.
  2. Aggarwal A, Marwaha R. Oppositional Defiant Disorder. StatPearls [Internet]: StatPearls Publishing; 2022. Available from:
  3. Heleniak C, McLaughlin KA. Social-cognitive mechanisms in the cycle of violence: Cognitive and affective theory of mind, and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. Development and psychopathology. 2020;32(2):735-50. doi: 10.1017/S0954579419000725
  4. Ogundele MO. Behavioural and emotional disorders in childhood: A brief overview for paediatricians. World journal of clinical pediatrics. 2018;7(1):9-26. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v7.i1.9
  5. Matthys W, Lochman JE. Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in childhood: John Wiley & Sons; 2017.
  6. Christensen LL, Baker BL. The Etiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder for Children with and without Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Analysis. Journal of mental health research in intellectual disabilities. 2021;14(1):50-69. doi: 10.1080/19315864.2020.1856242
  7. Galderisi S, Heinz A, Kastrup M, Beezhold J, Sartorius N. Toward a new definition of mental health. World Psychiatry. 2015;14(2):231-3. doi: 10.1002/wps.20231
  8. Schofield TJ, Conger RD, Donnellan MB, Jochem R, Widaman KF, Conger KJ. Parent personality and positive parenting as predictors of positive adolescent personality development over time. Merrill-Palmer quarterly (Wayne State University Press). 2012;58(2):255. doi: 10.1353/mpq.2012.0008
  9. Rowe AD, Fitness J. Understanding the role of negative emotions in adult learning and achievement: A social functional perspective. Behavioral sciences. 2018;8(2):27.
  10. Chaturvedi M, Chander R. Development of emotional stability scale. Industrial Psychiatry Journal. 2010;19(1):37-40. doi: 10.4103/0972-6748.77634
  11. Snyder CR, Lopez SJ. Handbook of positive psychology: Oxford university press; 2001.
  12. Ng R, Ang RP, Ho M-HR, editors. Coping with anxiety, depression, anger and aggression: The mediational role of resilience in adolescents. Child & Youth Care Forum. 2012; 41:529–546.
  13. Vahia VN. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5: A quick glance. Indian journal of psychiatry. 2013;55(3):220-3. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.117131
  14. Gratz KL, Roemer L. Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of psychopathology and behavioral assessment. 2004;26(1):41-54.
  15. Esbjørn B, Bender P, Reinholdt-Dunne M, Munck L, Ollendick T. The development of anxiety disorders: Considering the contributions of attachment and emotion regulation. Clinical child and family psychology review. 2012;15(2):129-43.
  16. Graziano PA, Keane SP, Calkins SD. Maternal behaviour and children's early emotion regulation skills differentially predict development of children's reactive control and later effortful control. Infant and Child Development. 2010;19(4):333-53. doi: 10.1002/icd.670
  17. Ganai M, Mir MA. A comparative study of adjustment and academic achievement of college students. Journal of Educational Research and Essays. 2013;1(1):5-8.
  18. Troy AS. Cognitive reappraisal ability as a protective factor: resilience to stress across time and context: University of Denver; 2012.
  19. Team N, Fellows N, Network K, Briefs T. Technical Proceedings of the 2003 Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show, Volume 2.
  20. Flujas-Contreras JM, García-Palacios A, Gómez I. Parenting Intervention for Psychological Flexibility and Emotion Regulation: Clinical Protocol and an Evidence-Based Case Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022;19(9):5014.
  21. Kamali A, Vaghee S, Aemmi SZ. Effect of Mother's Emotion Regulation Strategies Training on the Symptoms of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. International Journal of Pediatrics. 2018;6(12):8737-44.
  22. Jamilian H, Malekirad A, Farhadi M, Habibi M, Zamani N. Effectiveness of group dialectical behavior therapy (based on core distress tolerance and emotion regulation components) on expulsive anger and impulsive behaviors. Global Journal of Health Science. 2014;6(7):116-123. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v6n7p116
  23. Taghvaeinia A, Zarei F. The effectiveness of emotion regulation training on promoting mental health and rumination of divorce women. Shenakht Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry. 2022;9(3):44-56. doi: 10.32598/shenakht.9.3.44
  24. Omoro PM. Investigating the Causes and Possible Solutions of Divorce in Nairobi City County, Kenya: university of nairobi; 2018.
  25. Hommersen P, Murray C, Ohan JL, Johnston C. Oppositional defiant disorder rating scale: preliminary evidence of reliability and validity. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. 2006;14(2):118-25.
  26. Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1988;54(6):1063-70.
  27. Goldberg D, Williams P. General health questionnaire (GHQ). Swindon, Wiltshire, UK: nferNelson. 2000.
  28. O'Laughlin EM, Hackenberg JL, Riccardi MM. Clinical usefulness of the oppositional defiant disorder rating scale (ODDRS). Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. 2010;18(4):247-55.
  29. Faramarzi S, Abedi A, Ghanbari A. The effect of teaching the communication model of mothers on reducing the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder in children. Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. 2013;34(2):90-4.
  30. Díaz-García A, González-Robles A, Mor S, Mira A, Quero S, García-Palacios A, et al. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): psychometric properties of the online Spanish version in a clinical sample with emotional disorders. BMC psychiatry. 2020;20(1):1-13.
  31. Sohrabi N, Hosseini M. Researching the relationship between the type of family relationships and positive and negative emotions of male and female students living in the dormitory. The first psychology congress of Iran; Tehran: Teacher Training University; 2013.
  32. de Arévalo HF, Mónico M, Gibbons P. Assessment of the factor structure and reliability of the 28 item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in El Salvador. International journal of clinical and health psychology. 2004;4(2):389-98.
  33. Taghavi S. Validity and reliability of the general health questionnaire (ghq-28) in college students of shiraz university. Journal of psychology. 2002;5(4):381-98.
  34. Malakouti SK, Fatollahi P, Mirabzadeh A, Zandi T. Reliability, validity and factor structure of the GHQ-28 used among elderly Iranians. International Psychogeriatrics. 2007;19(4):623-34. doi:10.1017/S1041610206004522
  35. Bell CC. Cultivating resiliency in youth. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2001;29(5):375-81. doi: 10.1016/s1054-139x(01)00306-8
  36. Fredrickson BL, Tugade MM, Waugh CE, Larkin GR. What good are positive emotions in crisis? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of personality and social psychology. 2003;84(2):365.
  37. Folkman S, Moskowitz JT. Stress, positive emotion, and coping. Current directions in psychological science. 2000;9(4):115-8.
  38. Shiota MN. Silver linings and candles in the dark: differences among positive coping strategies in predicting subjective well-being. Emotion. 2006;6(2):335-9.
  39. Hopp H, Troy AS, Mauss IB. The unconscious pursuit of emotion regulation: Implications for psychological health. Cognition and Emotion. 2011;25(3):532-45.
  40. Morris AS, Silk JS, Steinberg L, Myers SS, Robinson LR. The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Social development. 2007;16(2):361-88. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00389.x
  41. Lehmann C. Oppositional defiant disorder in adolescents: What school counselors need to know. 2009.