Effect of Self-regulation on Academic Resilience Mediated by Perceived Competence

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Shahid Rajaii University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: Self-regulated learning facilitates resilience by controlling learning and creating self-confidence. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between self-regulation and academic resilience with the mediating role of perceived competence.
Method: The target population of the study included under graduate students from Tehran universities during the academic year of 2019-2020. The sample consisted of 360 students who were selected through random cluster sampling. The instruments used in this study were Perceived Competence scale, Self-regulation scale, and Academic Resiliency questionnaire. The research method used in this study was casual modeling.
Result: The results revealed that self-regulation had a direct effect on predicting academic resiliency. Also, because the total effect of self-regulation was more than its direct effect on academic resilience, a mediating role is probable. Perceived competence mediated the relationship between self-regulation and academic resilience and promoted it.
Conclusion: Through resilience, the educational process can be facilitated even in difficult and challenging situations and prevent academic failure and boredom.


  1. Heaton D. Resilience and resistance in academically successful Latino students. Phd thesis, Utah State University, 2013.
  2. Ali Khalaf M. Validity and Reliability of the Academic Resilience Scale in Egyptian Context. 2014
  3. MacConville R, Rae T. Building Happiness, Resilience and Motivation in Adolescents: A Positive Psychology Curriculum for Well-being. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 2012.
  4. Connor KM, Davidson JRT. Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depress Anxiety 2003; 18(2): 76-82.
  5. Jackson D, Firtko A, Edenborough M. Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: a literature review. J Adv Nurs 2007; 60(1): 1-9.
  6. Hart A, Gagnon E, Eryigit-Madzwamuse S, Cameron J, Aranda K, Rathbone A, Heaver B. Uniting Resilience Research and Practice With an Inequalities Approach. SAGE Open 2016; 6(4): 2158244016682477.
  7. Jowkar B, Kojuri J, Kohoulat N, Hayat AA. Academic resilience in education: the role of achievement goal orientations. J Adv Med Educ Prof 2014; 2(1): 33-8.
  8. Somchit S, Sriyaporn P. The relationships among resilience factors, perception of adversities, negative behavior, and academic achievement of 4th- to 6th-grade children in Thad-Thong, Chonburi, Thailand. J Pediatr Nurs 2004; 19(4): 294-303.
  9. Martin AJ, Marsh HW. Academic resilience and academic buoyancy: multidimensional and hierarchical conceptual framing of causes, correlates and cognate constructs. Oxf Rev Educ 2009; 35(3): 353-70.
  10. Martin A, Marsh H. Academic resilience and the four Cs: Confidence, Control, Composure, and Commitment. AARE/NZARE Conference. Auckland2003.
  11. Herrman H, Stewart DE, Diaz-Granados N, Berger EL, Jackson B, Yuen T. What is Resilience? Can J Psychiatry 2011; 56(5): 258-65.
  12. Dishion TJ, Connell A. Adolescents' resilience as a self-regulatory process: promising themes for linking intervention with developmental science. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006; 1094125-38.
  13. Gardner TW, Dishion TJ, Connell AM. Adolescent Self-Regulation as Resilience: Resistance to Antisocial Behavior within the Deviant Peer Context. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2008; 36(2): 273-84.
  14. Martin J, McLellan A-M. The Educational Psychology of Self-Regulation: A Conceptual and Critical Analysis. Stud Philos Educ 2007; 27433-48.
  15. Neal DJ, Carey KB. A follow-up psychometric analysis of the self-regulation questionnaire. Psychol Addict Behav 2005; 19(4): 414-22.
  16. Anderman EM. The teaching and learning of twenty-first century skills. the National Research Council Board on Testing and Assessment’s Workshop on Assessment of 21st Century Skills Irvine, CA2011.
  17. Pintrich PR. A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning in College Students. Educ Psychol Rev 2004; 16(4): 385-407.
  18. Zimmerman BJ. Becoming a Self-Regulated Learner: An Overview. Theory Pract 2002; 41(2): 64-70.
  19. Artuch-Garde R, González-Torres MDC, de la Fuente J, Vera MM, Fernández-Cabezas M, López-García M. Relationship between Resilience and Self-regulation: A Study of Spanish Youth at Risk of Social Exclusion. Front Psychol 2017; 8612.
  20. Deci EL, Ryan RM. The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychol Inquiry 2000; 11(4): 227-68.
  21. Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice-Hall, Inc; 1986. p. xiii, 617-xiii, .
  22. Harter S. A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components. Dev Psychol 1981; 17(3): 300-12.
  23. Panadero E. A review of self-regulated learning: Six models and four directions for research. Front Psychol 2017; 8
  24. Bandura A. Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Reviews; 2001. p. 1-26.
  25. Deci EL, Ryan RM. The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. J Res Pers 1985; 19(2): 109-34.
  26. Schlechty PC. Creating Great Schools: Six Critical Systems at the Heart of Educational Innovation. In: 2005.
  27. Pintrich PR. The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self- regulated learning. International. J Educ Research 1999; 31 459- 70.
  28. Zimmerman BJ, Martinez-Pons M. Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. J Educ Psychol 1990; 82(1): 51-9.
  29. Schunk H. Attributions and development of self-regulatory competence paper presented The annual conference of the American Educational research association. New York, NY2005. p. 12-8.
  30. Kline RB. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. Guilford Publications; 2011.
  31. Williams GC, Deci EL. Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students: A test of self-determination theory. J Pers Soc Psychol 1996; 70(40): 767-79.
  32. Bouffard T, Boisvert J, Vezeau C, Larouche C. The impact of goal orientation of self-regulation and performance among college students. Br J Educ Psychol 1995; 65(3): 317-29.
  33. Martin A. Motivation and Academic Resilience: Developing a Model for Student Enhancement. Aust J Educ 2002; 4634-49.
  34. Mirzaee S, Kiamanesh AR, Hejazi E, Banijamali S. The effect of perceived competence on academic resiliency with mediation of autonomous motivation. Journal of Psychological Models and Methods 2016; 7(25): -.
  35. Kadivar P. Self-efficacy self-regulated learning, intelligence and academic achievement. Psychol Educ J 2001; 10(3): 45-58.
  36. Hashemi Z. An explanatory model of educational resilience and emotional resilience. unpublished doctoral dissertation, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 2010.
  37. Arabzadeh M, Nikdel F, Kadivar P, Kavousian J, Hashemi K. The relationship of self-regulation and self-efficacy with academic stress in university students. International Journal of Education 2012102-13.
  38. Kaushik P, Jena SPK. Self-Regulation Learning Strategies and Academic Performance in Students with Learning Difficulty. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences 2021; 14(4): 172-7.
  39. Abasian F, Sadeghi M, Ghadampour E. Effect of Training of Self-Regulation Strategies on Academic Self-Efficacy and Academic Adjustment of Maladaptive High School Students. Journal of Research In Educational Systems 2019; 13(44 #l001058): -.
  40. Mokhberi A, Hashemi T, Bayrami M. The Effectiveness of Teaching Motivation Self-Regulatory Strategies in Academic Self-efficacy with the Moderating role of the Effects of Mastery-oriented and Performance-oriented Goals among Students. IJBS 2019; 13(2): 87-92.
  41. Martin A, Marsh H. Academic resilience and its psychological and educational correlates: A construct validity approach. Psychol Sch 2006; 43267-81.
  42. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 1977; 84(2): 191-215.
  43. Locke EA, Latham GP. Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. Am Psychol 2002; 57(9): 705-17.
  44. Masten AS. Regulatory processes, risk, and resilience in adolescent development. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004; 1021310-9.