Self-Regulation Learning Strategies and Academic Performance in Students with Learning Difficulty

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, India

2 Department of Applied Psychology, University of Delhi, India



Introduction: Difficulty in learning among younger students has perhaps become the greatest challenge for the present schooling framework. As they do not meet all requirements for criteria of formative incapacity, they are regularly neglected. Upgrading self-regulation aptitudes in students with learning difficulties enables the capacity to comprehend and control their learning cycle. 
Method: The current investigation was a semi-experimental research with a pre-test, post-test control group design. The study was comprised of 100 school students from New Delhi, India, whose ages ranged between 6-12 years studying in 3rd-8th grade, showing low scholarly accomplishment for ceaseless two years alongside behavioral issues. Students in the experimental group participated in the Program for Enhancing Academic and Behavioral Learning Skills (PEABLS), a cognitive-behavioral intervention, while the control group attended psychoeducation sessions. Both groups were compared using t-test and ANOVA. The relationship between academic, cognitive, and behavioral measures was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. 
Results: Findings indicated that PEABLS significantly impacted cognitive skills and self-regulation, consequently improving academic performance among the experimental group (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: The study concluded that attending PEABLS sessions enhanced the level of self-regulation, academic performance, and cognitive skills among school students with learning problems. 



  1. References

    1. Venugopal M, Raju P. A study on the learning disabilities among IV and V standard children. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 1988; 11:119-23.
    2. Siqueiral CM, GurGe-Giannetti J. Poor school performance: an updated review. Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira. 2011; 57(1):78-86.
    3. Santosh AK. Scholastic backwardness in children attending a normal school. Andhra Pradesh Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2011; 15(2): 251-4.
    4. Karande S, Kulkarni M. Poor school performance. Indian Journal of Paediatrics. 2005; 72:961-7.
    5. Feinstein L. Social class differences in early cognitive development and regression to the mean. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies. 2015; 6(3): 331- 43.
    6. Ramadas S, Vijayan VV. Profile of students referred for the assessment of scholastic backwardness at a tertiary care center. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2019; 61:439-43.
    7. Pratima. Childhood adversities and learning difficulty in school children: Role of resilience and self-regulation. International Journal of Social Sciences Review. 2019; 7(3): 498-503.
    8. Brodsky BS. Early childhood environment and genetic interactions: the diathesis for suicidal behavior. Current psychiatry reports. 2016; 18(9):86.
    9. Fletcher JM. Dyslexia: the evolution of a scientific concept- short review. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society. 2009; 15(5):501-8.
    10. Brock C, Schwartzman S: Os desafios da educação no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Fronteira. 2005.
    11. Sebastian V. Ensuring Learning in Slow Learners. Educational Quest: An Int. J. of Education and Applied Social Sciences. 2016; 2(l):125-31.
    12. Abbasi M. Efficacy of Cognitive problem-solving skills - to improve the quality of social relationships and Interpersonal empathy in students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 2014; 8(1):65-72.
    13. Mokhberi A, Hashemi T, Bayrami M. The Effectiveness of Teaching Motivation Self-Regulatory Strategies in Academic Self-efficacy with the Moderating role of the Effects of Mastery-oriented and Performance-oriented Goals among Students. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2019; 13(2):87-92.
    14. Zimmerman BJ, Risemberg R. Self-regulatory dimensions of academic learning and motivation.  In G. D. Phye (Ed.), Handbook of academic learning: Construction of knowledge. San Diego, CA:  Academic Press; 1997. p.105-125.
    15. Pintrich PR. Understanding self-regulated learning.  In P. R. Pintrich (Ed.), Understanding self-regulated learning.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass; 1995. p. 3-12.
    16. Zimmerman BJ. Models of self-regulated learning and academic achievement.  In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research, and practice.  New York:  Springer-Verlag; 1989. 1-25.
    17. Galla BM, Duckworth AL. More than resisting temptation: Beneficial habits mediate the relationship between self-control and positive life outcomes. Journal Personality Social Psychology. 2015; 109(3):508-25.
    18. Bronson M.B. Recognizing and supporting the development of self-regulation in young children. Young Children. 2000; 55:32-37.
    19. Bogg T, Roberts BW. Conscientiousness and health-related behaviors: a meta-analysis of the leading behavioral contributors to mortality. Psychology Bulletin. 2004; 130(6):887-919.
    20. Flook L, Goldberg SB, Pinger L, Davidson RJ. Promoting prosocial behavior and self-regulatory skills in preschool children through mindfulness-based kindness curriculum. Developmental Psychology. 2015; 51(1): 41-51.
    21. Felver JC, Tipsford JM, Morris MJ, Hiatt-Racer K, Dishon TJ. The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on children’s attention regulation. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2017; 21(1): 872-81.
    22. Jones DJ, Greenberg MT, Crowley DM. Early social-emotional functioning and public health: The relationship between kindergarten social competence and future wellness. American Journal of Public Health. 2015; 105(11):2283–290.
    23. Swarup S, Mehta DH. The diagnostic test of learning disability (DTLD). Centre for Special Education, SNDT Women University. In S. Uppal, Sixth Survey of Educational Research, Volume I, New Delhi: NCERT. 1993.
    24. Raven JC. Guide to Progressive Matrices (1938) (rev. ed.). London: H. K. Lewis. 1998.
    25. Hrbáčková K, Vávrová S. The Development and Validation of the Self-Regulation Questionnaire in Children and Minors. Procedia–Social and Behavioural Sciences. 2014; 112:730-37.
    26. Zimmerman BJ, Martinez-Pons M. Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies.  American Educational Research Journal. 1986; 23(4):614-28.
    27. Zimmerman BJ, Martinez-Pons M. Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, & giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1990; 82:51-59.
    28. Mather N, Goldstein S, Eklund K. Learning Disabilities, and Challenging Behaviours. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. 2015.
    29. Borah R. Slow Learners: Role of Teachers and Guardians in Honing their Hidden Skills. International Journal of Educational Planning & Administration. 2013; 3(2):139-43.
    30. Malik S. Effect of intervention training on mental abilities of slow learners. International Journal of Educational Science. 2009; 1:61–4.
    31. Ho ES. Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement of Hong Kong Secondary School Students. Education Journal. 2004; 32(2):87- 107.
    32. Meltzer LJ. Creating strategic classrooms and schools: Embedding executive function strategies in the curriculum. In L. J. Meltzer (Ed.), Executive function in education: From theory to practice, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press. 2018. p. 263–99.
    33. Zimmerman BJ. Becoming self-regulated learnings: An overview. Theory & Practice. 2002; 41:64–70.
    34. Jausˇovec N, Jausˇovec K. Working memory training: Improving intelligence–changing brain activity. Brain and Cognition. 2012; 79(2):96–106.
    35. Alloway TP, Alloway RG. Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 2010; 106(1):20–29.
    36. Duckworth AL, Quinn PD, Tsukayama E. What No Child Left Behind leaves behind: The roles of IQ and self-control in predicting standardized achievement test scores and report card. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2012; 104:439–51.