The Effects of Ultrasound, Infrasound, and Electroconvulsive Stimulations on Depression-like Behavior in Mice

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Psychology, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran

2 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: In the present study, the effects of ultrasound, infrasound, and electroconvulsive stimulation on depression-like behavior was assessed in animal models.
Method: For carrying out this study, 60 male BALB/c mice (mean age of 60 days, weight range of 25 – 30 g) were randomly selected. Depression was induced using reserpine 0.1 mg/kg i.p. for 30 days.  They were allocated to three groups of experimental (ultrasound, infrasound, and electroconvulsive stimulation) and one group of control animals, each including 15 mice. Experimental animals received ultra- or infrasound 0.5 hours or 1 electroconvulsive pulse, daily for 10 days. Finally the Forced Swim Test was carried out.
Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the duration of immobility posture [F(3,54) = 99.54, P = 0.001]. Mean immobility time was significantly longer in the control group compared to the other groups. Also, immobility was significantly longer for electroconvulsive compared to the ultra- and infrasound groups. Group ultrasound showed longer immobility than group infrasound; however, the difference was not significant.
Conclusion: Ultrasound and infrasound stimulations are capable of decreasing depression-like behavior in mice. The results of this study were also compatible with the application of electroconvulsive therapy. However, a more successful response can be exploited with ultra- and infrasound stimulations.


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