Direct and Indirect Effect of Personality Traits on Hope: The Mediating Role of Academic Motivation

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Yasouj, Yasouj, Iran


Introduction: The present study sought to investigate the possible correlation between big five personality traits and hope, considering academic motivation as the mediating variable.
Method: This research was a correlation study with a structural equation model design. The population included all bachelor students in Yasouj University, among whom 343 students were chosen (147 male and 196 female), by multi-stage random cluster sampling. The participants filled in three questionnaires as follows: The Big Five Inventory (BFI-44), Situational Motivational Scale and the Hope Scale. Cronbach's alpha was used to check the reliability of the research data. Results showed an appropriate reliability for these scales. The path analysis was run as a statistical technique for analysing a data
Results: Path Analysis results suggested that neuroticism had both negative direct and indirect effects on hope. In addition, openness to experience, conscientiousness and extraversion exerted both positive direct and indirect effects on hope through the mediating role of amotivation, integrated and intrinsic motivation. This study indicated that academic motivation plays a mediating role in the relationship between personality traits and hope.
Conclusion: The findings indicate that the presented model is appropriate for explaining how personality traits affect hope.


1.         Cheng H, Furnham A. Personality, self-esteem, and demographic predictions of happiness and depression. Personality and Individual Differences. 2003;34(6):921-42.
2.         Furnham A, Cheng H. Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem and happiness. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology: The International Journal for Research in Social and Genetic Epidemiology and Mental Health Services. 2000;35(10):463-70.
3.         Eysenck M. Happiness: Facts and Myths. London: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1990.
4.         Snyder CR, Harris C, Anderson JR, Holleran SA, Irving LM, Sigmon ST, et al. The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1991;60(4):570-85.
5.         Snyder CR, Shorey HS, Cheavens J, Pulvers KM, Adams Iii VH, Wiklund C. Hope and academic success in college. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2002;94(4):820-6.
6.         Snyder CR. Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry. 2002;13(4):249-75.
7.         Rego A, Sousa F, Marques C, Pina e Cunha M. Hope and positive affect mediating the authentic leadership and creativity relationship. Journal of Business Research. 2014;67(2):200-10.
8.         Snyder CR, Lopez SJ, Shorey HS, Rand KL, Feldman DB. Hope theory, measurements, and applications to school psychology. School Psychology Quarterly. 2003;18(2):122-39.
9.         Lopez S, Rose S, Robinson C, Marques S, Pais-Ribeiro J. Measuring and promoting hope in schoolchildren. In: Gilman R, Huebner E, Furlong  M, editors. Handbook of Positive Psychology in Schools New York, NY: Routledge; 2009. p. 30-50.
10.       Snyder C, Rand K, Sigmon D. Hope theory: A member of the positive psychology family. In: Snyder C, Lopez S, editors. Handbook of Positive Psychology New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2005. p. 257-76.
11.       Costa PT, McCrae RR. Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences. 1992;13(6):653-65.
12.       McCrae RR. Social consequences of experiential openness. Psychol Bull. 1996;120(3):323-37.
13.       Mousavi AS. A survey to the predictive value of personal dimensions, anxiety trait and depressive quality in smoking. International journal of Behavioral Sciences 2013;7(3):255-62.
14.       Abdi R, Chalabianloo G, Joorbonyan A. Prediction of the perfectionism by proposed model for abnormal personality dimensions. International Journal Of Behavioral Sciences 2015;9(3):210-4.
15.       Gnilka PB, Ashby JS, Noble CM. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Counseling & Development. 2013;91(1):78-86.
16.       Hutz C, Midgett A, Pacico J, Bastianello M, Zanon C. The Relationship of Hope, Optimism, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, and Personality in Brazilians and Americans. Psychology. 2014;05:514-22.
17.       Lü W, Wang Z, Liu Y, Zhang H. Resilience as a mediator between extraversion, neuroticism and happiness, PA and NA. Personality and Individual Differences. 2014;63:128-33.
18.       Sharpe JP, Martin NR, Roth KA. Optimism and the Big Five factors of personality: Beyond Neuroticism and Extraversion. Personality and Individual Differences. 2011;51(8):946-51.
19.       Ryan RM, Deci EL. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2000;25(1):54-67.
20.       Becker M, McElvany N, Kortenbruck M. Intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation as predictors of reading literacy: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2010;102(4):773-85.
21.       Deci EL, Ryan RM. Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life's domains. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne. 2008;49(1):14-23.
22.       Ryan R, Huta V, Deci E. Living well: A self-determination theory perspective on eudaimonia. Journal of Happiness Studies. 2008;9:139-70.
23.       Ryan R, Deci E. A Self-Determination Theory Approach to Psychotherapy: The Motivational Basis for Effective Change. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne. 2008;49:186-93.
24.       Yeung AS, McInerney DM. Students’ School Motivation and Aspiration Over High School Years. Educational Psychology. 2005;25(5):537-54.
25.       Laurencelle RM, Abell SC, Schwartz DJ. The Relation Between Intrinsic Religious Faith and Psychological Well-Being. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. 2002;12(2):109-23.
26.       Koseoglu Y. Academic motivation and the big five. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies. 2014;5(3):344 - 51.
27.       Feldman DB, Kubota M. Hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and academic achievement: Distinguishing constructs and levels of specificity in predicting college grade-point average. Learning and Individual Differences. 2015;37:210-6.
28.       Saroglou V. Religion and the five factors of personality: a meta-analytic review. Personality and Individual Differences. 2002;32(1):15-25.
29.       Corr PJ, DeYoung CG, McNaughton N. Motivation and Personality: A Neuropsychological Perspective. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 2013;7(3):158-75.
30.       Kaspi-Baruch O. Motivational orientation as a mediator in the relationship between personality and protean and boundaryless careers. European Management Journal. 2016;34(2):182-92.
31.       McGeown SP, Putwain D, Geijer Simpson E, Boffey E, Markham J, Vince A. Predictors of adolescents' academic motivation: Personality, self-efficacy and adolescents' characteristics. Learning and Individual Differences. 2014;32:278-86.
32.       Medford E, McGeown SP. The influence of personality characteristics on children's intrinsic reading motivation. Learning and Individual Differences. 2012;22(6):786-91.
33.       Davidson OB, Feldman DB, Margalit M. A focused intervention for 1st-year college students: promoting hope, sense of coherence, and self-efficacy. J Psychol. 2012;146(3):333-52.
34.       Feldman D, Dreher D. Can Hope be Changed in 90 Minutes? Testing the Efficacy of a Single-Session Goal-Pursuit Intervention for College Students. Journal of Happiness Studies. 2011;13.
35.       Levi U, Einav M, Ziv O, Raskind I, Margalit M. Academic expectations and actual achievements: The roles of hope and effort. European Journal of Psychology of Education. 2014;29.
36.       Duriez B, Soenens B. Personality, Identity Styles, and Religiosity: An Integrative Study among Late and Middle Adolescents. Journal of adolescence. 2006;29:119-35.
37.       Maltby J, Day L. Depressive symptoms and religious orientation: examining the relationship between religiosity and depression within the context of other correlates of depression. Personality and Individual Differences. 2000;28(2):383-93.
38.       Soenens B, Vansteenkiste M. Antecedents and Outcomes of Self-Determination in 3 Life Domains: The Role of Parents' and Teachers' Autonomy Support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2005;34(6):589-604.
39.       Babyak MA, Snyder CR, Yoshinobu L. Psychometric Properties of the Hope Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Journal of Research in Personality. 1993;27(2):154-69.
40.       Guay F, Vallerand R, Blanchard C. On the Assessment of Situational Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). Motivation and Emotion. 2000;24:175-213.
41.       Jorm AF, Christensen H. Religiosity and personality: evidence for non-linear associations. Personality and Individual Differences. 2004;36(6):1433-41.
42.       Halama P. Hope as a mediator between personality traits and life satisfaction. Studia Psychologica. 2010;52:309-14.
43.       Mathew J, Dunning C, Coats C, Whelan T. The mediating influence of hope on multidimensional perfectionism and depression. Personality and Individual Differences. 2014;70:66-71.
44.       Komarraju M, Karau SJ. The relationship between the big five personality traits and academic motivation. Personality and Individual Differences. 2005;39(3):557-67.
45.       Eysenck H. Personality theory and the problem of criminality. In: Muncie J, McLaughlin J, editors. Criminological perspectives: A reader London: Sage; 1996. p. 81-98.
46.       Komarraju M, Karau SJ, Schmeck RR. Role of the Big Five personality traits in predicting college students' academic motivation and achievement. Learning and Individual Differences. 2009;19(1):47-52.
47.       Roehrig A, Christesen E. Development and use of a tool for evaluating teacher effectiveness in grades K-12. In: Shute V, Becker  B, editors. Innovative assessment for the 21st Century New York, NY: Springer; 2010. p. 207-28.