Development and Efficacy of Acceptance and Cognitive Restructuring Intervention Program on the Symptoms of Internet Gaming Disorder and Psychological Well-being of Adolescents: A Pilot Study

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Psychology, University of Santo Tomas, Espana, Manila, Philippines

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: The internet has become an integral part of people’s daily life. However, empirical studies indicate that its prevalent use among adolescents has negatively influenced them and, in some cases, resulted to Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). The World Health Organization has recently recognized individuals with gaming disorder as having a mental health condition. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility and efficacy of an intervention program that would reduce the level of IGD, and improve the psychological well-being of the adolescents.
Method: The development of the program involved the use of sequential exploratory design, pre and post test pilot intervention design, Wilcoxon signed rank test, IGD and Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being (PWB) scales. Focus group discussions and interviews were held to acquire in-depth understanding of the key issues, and the cognitive theoretical models of Pathologic Internet Use and Mindfulness were integrated.
Results: The eight module intervention program integrating the theories of Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Pathologic Internet Use and Mindfulness was administered in four weeks on a 3-hour session per module and was validated by experts in various disciplines. Statistical analyses showed significant difference in the post-test scores of the participants after the administration of the intervention program.  
Conclusion: The pilot study using the Acceptance and Cognitive Restructuring Intervention Program (ACRIP) resulted in reduced levels of IGD and improved the psychological well-being from the selected adolescents. The study confirmed that the concepts and the structure of the program are reliable, feasible, and efficacious for testing on a larger base of adolescents who are at risk of IGD.

Keywords


References

  1. World Health Organization. Meeting Report on Public Health Implications of Excessive Use of the Internet, Computers, Smart phones and Similar Electronic Devices, 27-29 August 2014, Tokyo, Japan. 2010. Available from http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/activities/addictive_behaviours/en [Accessed 19th July 2018].
  2. Ko, CH. Internet gaming disorder. Current Addiction Reports. 2014;1(3):177-185. doi: 10.1007/s40429-014-0030-y
  3. Muller K, Janikian M, Dreier M, Wolfling K, Beutel M, Tzavara C, et al. Regular gaming behavior                and Internet Gaming Disorder in European adolescents: Results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2015;24(5):565-574.  doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0611-2
  4. World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases. 2018. Available from https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en#/http://id.who.int/icd/entity/1448597234 [Accessed 19th  July 2918].
  5. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author. 2013.
  6. Gonzales-Bueso V, Santamaria J, Fernandez D, Merino L, Montero E, Jimenez-Murcia S, et al.  (2018). Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescents. Personality, Psychopathology and Evaluation. Clinical and Health Psychology. 2018. doi: 3389/fpsyg.2018.00787.
  7. Kuss, DJ, Griffiths MD. Online gaming addiction in children and adolescents: a review of empirical research. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 2012;1(1):3-22.  doi:10.1556/JBA.1.2012.1.1
  8. Subramaniam, M, Abdin E, Chua BY, Pang S, Satghare P, et al. Prevalence and correlates of  Internet Gaming Problem among Internet Users. Results from an Internet Survey. Annals of the Academy of Medicine. 2016;45(5):174-183.
  9. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) (4th ed., Rev.) Washington, DC: Author. 2000.
  10. Davis RA. A cognitive behavior model of pathological internet use. Computers in Human Behavior. 2001;17:187-195.
  11. King D, Delfabbro PH. The cognitive psychology of internet gaming disorder. Clinical Psychology Review. 2014;34(4):298-308. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.03.2006- 16
  12. Langer EJ. Mindful learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2000;9(6):220-223.
  13. Pontes HM, Griffiths MD. Measuring DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder: Development and validation of a short psychometric scale. Computers in Human Behavior. 2015;45:137–143.  doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.006
  14. Pontes HM, Griffiths MD. Portuguese Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form. Cyberpsychology Behavior and Social Networking. 2016;19(4):288-93.
  15. Ryff CD, Keyes CLM. The Structure of Psychological Well-Being Revisited. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. 1995;69:719-727. doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.4.719
  16. Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD, Pontes HM. DSM-5 diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder: Some ways forward in overcoming issues and concerns in the gaming studies field. Journal of Behavioral Addiction. 2017,6(2):133-141. doi:10.1556/2006.6.2017.032