Conceptual model of religious and spiritual struggles in Iran: A qualitative study

Document Type: Original Article


1 Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Iran

2 Research Institute of Hawzah and UnivDepartment of Psychology, Research Institute of Hazah & University, Qom, Iran.ersity

3 0



Introduction: This study aimed to explore the conceptual model of religious and spiritual struggles among a Muslim sample by using qualitative method.
Method: Current study was done by using the grounded theory. The purposive sampling method was applied and sampling continued until data saturation. Via In-depth, semi-structured phenomenological interview, we interviewed with 14 persons that had religious and spiritual problems. Based on standards of in-depth interview, with each individual, four 90-minute sessions were held to identify different dimensions of their experience. Open-ended questions were used to accomplish the purpose of the interview. In addition, we used “clinical exercises” to elicit clients' religious and spiritual struggles.
Results: Based on the findings of this study, religious and spiritual struggles have been divided into six categories: divine struggles, intrapersonal struggles, interpersonal struggles, supernatural struggles, struggle with some teachings of religion, and struggle with the effectiveness of religious institutions.
Conclusion: There are different types of religious and spiritual struggles among Iranians. It is necessary to address religious and spiritual struggles, as many studies have reported a negative relationship between spiritual struggles and mental health.