Effects of ultrasound, infrasound, and electroconvulsive stimulations on depression-like behavior in mice

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Psychology, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran

2 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Introduction: We assessed the effects of ultrasound, infrasound, and electroconvulsive stimulation on depression-like behavior in animal models.
Methods: In total, 60 male BALB/c mice (mean age of 60 days, weight range of 25 – 30 g) were randomly selected. Depression was induced using reserpine 0.1 mg/kg i.p. for 30 days. Then, they were allocated to 3 groups of experimental (ultrasound, infrasound, and electroconvulsive stimulation) and 1 group of control animals, each including 15 mice. Experimental animals received ultra- or infrasound 0.5 hours or 1 electroconvulsive pulse, daily for 10 days. Then, we carried out the Forced Swim Test.
Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the duration of immobility posture [F(3,54) = 99.54, P = 0.001]. Mean immobility time was significantly longer in control compared with other groups. Also, immobility was significantly longer for electroconvulsive compared to ultra- and infrasound groups. Group ultrasound showed longer immobility than group infrasound; however, the difference was not significant.
Conclusion: Ultrasound and infrasound stimulations are capable of decreasing depression-like behavior in mice. Our results were also compatible with the application of electroconvulsive therapy; however, we were able to elicit a more successful response with ultra- and infrasound stimulations.